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Oskar Kokoschka, Works on Paper The Early Years, i8py-ipiy 

Oskar Kokoschka, Works on Paper 

The Early Years, iSpy-ipiy 

ip2 pages with p6 full-color plates and 
50 black-and-white illustrations 

This book, the catalogue to an exhibition presented 
at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, showcases 
the extraordinary drawings, watercolors, and 
lithographs of Oskar Kokoschka (1886— 1980), one of 
Expressionism's leading figures. A wide range of 
works on paper is included, beginning with a 
delicately rendered drawing of a girl from a recently 
discovered student sketchbook and academic nudes 
drawn while Kokoschka was enrolled at the Vienna 
Kunstgewerbeschule (School of Applied Arts) from 
1904 to 1908. It was during this period that he made 
his first professional works, charming postcards and 
fans for the influential Wiener Werkstatte. These 
decorative works soon gave way to his more mature 
style, characterized by a masterly command of 
draughtsmanship and an often-violent subject 
matter that plumbs the depths of the human psyche, 
instinct, and myth. This volume includes a broad 
selection of works from the years when Kokoschka 
was at the height of his artistic powers, creating 
deeply charged portraits, figure studies, and 
dramatic illustrations based on the literary works he 
authored. It concludes with examples from an 
important series of war drawings inspired by the 
artist's experiences as a soldier during 'World "War I. 

The beautifully produced color plates in this 
catalogue are illuminated by a scholarly essay by 
Alice Strobl and Alfred Weidinger, who have 
pursued Kokoschka's works on paper in greater 
depth than any other art historians. A detailed 
account of the development of the artist's career until 
1917, their text offers compelling evidence that has 
led to dozens of reattributions and redatings, making 
this book a required addition to any art library. 


Das Mddchen Li und ich (The Girl Li and / ), 1908 
(cat. no. 39). Color lithograph with tempera and 
opaque white on paper, 24 x 22 cm. Private 
collection, Zurich. 

Printed in Germany 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Library and Archives 

Oskar Kokoschka, Works on Paper The Early Years, 1897- 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum 
June 10— August 24, ipp4 



© I994> The Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Foundation, New York. 
All rights reserved. 

All Oskar Kokoschka works 

© 1994 Olda Kokoschka. Used by 

permission. All rights reserved. 

Guggenheim Museum Publications 

1071 Fifth Avenue 

New York, New York 10128 

Designed by Cara Galowitz 
Printed in Germany by Cantz 

Hardcover edition distributed by 

Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 

100 Fifth Avenue 

New York, New York looii 

This exhibition has been organized by the 
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. 
Neu' York and the Graphische Sammlung 
Albert ina. Vienna. The presentation at the 
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum is made 
possible through the generous support of the 
Austrian Cidtural Institute of New York 
and the Austrian Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs: Mr and Airs. Ronald S. Lauder: 
Zumtobel Staff Lighting Inc. : The City 
of Vienna: the American Austrian 
Foundation: Wiener Stddtische Insurance: 
Kunsttrans: Dietl International Services: 
and Bank Austria. The official carrier for 
this exhibition is Austrian Airlines. 

ISBN 0-8109-6879-7 (hardcover) 
ISBN 0-89207-133-8 (softcover) 

Cover: Das Mddchen Li und ich 
{The Girl Li and 1), 1908 (cat. no. 39). 
Color lithograph with tempera and 
opaque white on paper, 24 x 22 cm. 
Private collection, Zurich. 



Thomas Krem 


Konrad Oberhuber 

Oskar Kokoschka: Early Graphic Works 1 3 

Alice Strobl and Alfred Weidinger 

Catalogue 63 

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 

Honorary Trustees in Perpetuity 
Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Justin K. Thannhauser 
Peggy Guggenlieim 


Peter O. Lawson-Johnston 

Robert M. Gardiner 
Wendy L-J. McNeil 

Vice-President and Treasurer 
Stephen C. Swid 

Thomas Krens 

Edward F. Rover 


Jeanne Moutoussamy-Ashe 
The Right Honorable 
Earl Castle Stewart 
Mary Sharp Cronson 
Michel David-Weill 
Carlo De Benedetti 
Robert M. Gardiner 
Rainer Heubach 
Barbara Jonas 
Thomas Krens 
Peter O. Lawson-Johnston 
Samuel J. LeFrak 
Peter B. Lewis 
Natalie Lieberman 
Wendy L-J. McNeil 
Edward H. Meyer 
Marcel L. Ospel 
Ronald O. Perelman 
Michael M. Rea 
Richard A. Rifkind 
Denise Saul 
Rudolph B. Schulhof 
Terry Semel 
James B. Sherwood 
Raja W. Sidawi 
Seymour Slive 
Peter W Stroh 
Stephen C. Swid 
John S. Wadsworth, Jr. 
Rawleigh Warner, Jr. 
Cornel West 
Michael F. Wettach 
John Wilmerding 
Donald M. Wilson 
William T. Ylvisaker 

Honorary Trustee 

Mme Claude Pompidou 

Trustee, Ex Officio 
Luigi Moscheri 

Director Emeritus 
Thomas M. Messer 


Thomas Krens 

In 1986, the centennial of Oskar Kokoschka's birth, the Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum presented a retrospective of the artist's paintings, providing American 
audiences with a rare glimpse of the impressive breadth of Kokoschka's 
innovative skills and limitless imagination. Now, nearly ten years later, the 
museum has the privilege of bringing another aspect of this extraordinary artist's 
work to light. 

Oskar Kokoschka, Works on Paper: The Early Years, i8py-i^iy is drawn from an 
exhibition of 225 works on paper held at the Graphische Sammlung Albertina, 
Vienna from March to May of this year. Credit for the conception, research, and 
organization of this remarkable survey goes to Alice Strobl and Alfred Weidinger, 
who have also undertaken the preparation of the catalogue raisonne of the artist's 
drawings and watercolors. We are honored to present this insightful exhibition in 
New York, and are pleased to continue our ongoing association with Austrian 
artists and institutions. 

A project of this scope requires the dedicated efforts oi many individuals. First 
and foremost, I would like to thank Konrad Oberhuber, Director of the 
Graphische Sammlung Albertina; without his enthusiastic participation, this 
presentation would not have been realized. Alice Strobl's and Alfred Weidinger's 
documentation of Kokoschka's works on paper has added invaluably to an 
understanding of the artist's work and his contribution to the art of the twentieth 
century. I would also like to thank Olda Kokoschka, the artist's widow, for her 
assistance and kind cooperation. My gratitude also goes to members of the 
Guggenheim Museum's staff who organized the exhibition in New York. 

The presentation of Kokoschka's works on paper at the Guggenheim required 
a significant degree of international and private support. I would like to thank 
the Austrian Cultural Institute of New York, its director. Dr. Wolfgang Waldner, 
whose unflagging efforts contributed enormously to the realization of this 
project, and the Austrian Ministry for Foreign Affairs; Mr. and Mrs. Ronald S. 
Lauder; Zumtobel Staff Lighting Inc.; The City of Vienna, and its Commissioner 
for Cultural Affairs, Dr. Ursula Pasterk; the American Austrian Foundation; 
Wiener Stadtische Insurance; Kunsttrans; Dietl International Services; and 
Bank Austria. I would also like to express my gratitude to Austrian Airlines, the 
official carrier for this exhibition. 

Finally, I would like to thank the lenders for so generously allowing us to 
present the richness and diversity ot Kokoschka's works on paper. 


Kunrjd Oberbiiber 

It IS particularly appropriate that this exhibition of Oskar Kokoschka's early 
drawings and watercolors has come from Vienna, where it premiered at the 
Graphische Sammlung Aibertina, to the United States. Kokoschka's great 
interest in international artistic developments, evident from the beginning of his 
career, led him to spend the majority ot his life outside Austria. In the 1920s, 
Kokoschka longed to find success in the United States, hoping to show his works 
here and to have built in this country a templelike structure that he had 
originally designed in 1914 as a crematoritim for Wroclaw, Poland. Moreover, 
it seems fitting that American audiences will have the opportunity to view 
Kokoschka's pre-1918 drawings at the same time that an important exhibition of 
drawings and watercolors by Egon Schiele — a fellow Austrian — is traveling 
within the country. 

The many exhibitions devoted to fin-de-siecle Viennese art, as this one is, have 
focused for the most part on the work of Schiele and Gustav Klimt. Kokoschka 
has remained a background figure, even though he later played a more prominent 
role in the avant-garde. For Klimt, the period before his death in 1918 was the 
culmination of a long artistic career, during which his explorations of color and 
form earned him great international success. Schiele 's contributions to art history 
were made primarily in the few years before his early death, also in 1918. 
Kokoschka, who survived both, would continue to achieve creative heights in his 
rich and diverse development. 

In his early works created tor the Wiener Werkstatte — among them the 
lithograph series Die tyaiiinenden Knahen (The Dreaming Boys. 1907—08) and 
numerous posters and postcards — Kokoschka revealed himself to be a master of 
the decorative Werkstatte style. Yet, even in his earliest drawings, and 
particularly in his nude studies, Kokoschka interpreted the work of his 
exemplars — including Paul Gauguin, Ferdinand Hodler, and Auguste Rodin — in 
a far more spontaneous, painterly, and expressive manner than did his 
contemporaries. The literary and dramatic talent that informed his subsequent 
work led him away from the influence of Klimt and Schiele toward Expressionist 
and even Cubist tendencies. Visiting Berlin in 1910, Kokoschka encountered a 
group of German painters whose artistic freedom confirmed his departure from 
the dominant Viennese style; a trip to Italy in 1914 further widened his 
perspective. Unlike any other Austrian artist, Kokoschka became a significant 
figure in the German Expressionist movement before 1918, evolving an entirely 
individualistic style born without the influence of Fauvism. 

This exhibition serves to elucidate, for the first time, Kokoschka's stylistic 
development through his drawings. The exact chronology of these shifts and 
changes is more easily established in the works on paper than in the paintings; 
the longer periods of time spent on each canvas, later overpainting, and varying 
degrees of incompletion in the paintings make it difficult to formulate a precise 
dating method. This major project could not have been undertaken without the 
research conducted by Alice Strobl toward the catalogue raisonne of Kokoschka's 
drawings and watercolors, which she began in 1990. Originally, the exhibition 
was planned to coincide with the publication of the first volume of the catalogue 
raisonne in 1995; however, with the decision to close the Aibertina for a major 
renovation, the exhibition was rescheduled to March 1994, allowing only a year 
for research and organization. Alice Strobl, together with Alfred Weidinger, 
curated the exhibition and wrote the essay that appears in this catalogue, 
selecting the works from some 850 early drawings discovered so far. Works not 
previously attributed to Kokoschka were included in the exhibition as a result of 

their research, and the many scholars who viewed the exhibition in Vienna have 
accepted these new attributions. The exhibition also led to new discoveries, such 
as the influence of Rodin on Kokoschka and the redating of several works. The 
catalogue essay was revised for this English edition to reflect their many new 

Kokoschka 's style changed freqtiently throughout his career. The exhibition's 
curators strove to establish the chronology of Kokoschka's works as precisely as 
possible, a challenging undertaking in light of the many discrepancies in 
previous dating and the fact that the artist often signed and dated his works some 
time after they were made. To best explain his stylistic developments, at least two 
or three particularly characteristic works were chosen from each period for the 
exhibition in Vienna. For its presentation in New York, eighty-eight drawings 
and watercoiors from the original exhibition were selected, along with seven 
lithographs from The Dreaming Boys and three other works not shown in Vienna. 

An exhibition and catalogue of this caliber could never have been achieved 
without the initiative and commitment of the many people involved. First and 
foremost, I would like to thank Alice Strobl and Alfred Weidinger for the 
conception and accomplishment of the exhibition and its catalogue. Their tireless 
efforts have been rewarded with many new and often astonishing discoveries. The 
willingness of public and private lenders alike to lend the works that were 
requested from their collections was the most important condition for the 
realization of the exhibition. We are greatly indebted to them, and we value their 
trust and generosity. We owe thanks to all of our colleagues from the public 
collections we approached for making the loans possible. We are indebted to the 
Austrian Ministry for Science and Research and, in particular, to its minister and 
vice-chancellor, Dr. Erhard Busek, whose support was vital to this major project. 
We also appreciate the support provided by the Austrian Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs, and above all by Dr. Wolfgang Waldner, director of the Austrian Cultural 
Institute in New York, who was wholeheartedly committed to the realization of 
the exhibition in the United States. 

Finally, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to our colleagues at the 
Guggenheim Museum, in particular Thomas Krens, Director, Michael Govan, 
Deputy Director, and Diane Waldman, Deputy Director and Senior Curator, tor 
successfully bringing the exhibition to New York. 

Translated, from the German, by Susan Schwarz 

tv' I 

f if !■■'■'• 

f 4iL-^' 


Oskar Kokoschka: Early Graphic Works 

Alice Strobl and Alfred Weidinger 

This essay, a scholarly endeavor that includes new research and observations on 
Oskar Kokoschka's drawings and watercolors, was originally published in 
German in the catalogue to an exhibition held at the Graphische Sammlung 
Albertina, Vienna, from March i through May 23, 1994. That show, Oskar 
Kokoschka: Das Friihwerk (i8pjtp8—ipiy), Zeichnungen und Aquarelle {Oskar 
Kokoschka: The Early Work {i8py/p8—ipij}. Drawings and Watercolors), encompassed 
225 examples from more than seventy collections around the world. After the 
close of the exhibition in Vienna, we revised our text to reflect several new 
insights and discoveries that resulted from the unprecedented gathering of so 
many works by Kokoschka. This research will be inchided in the first volume of 
our forthcoming catalogue raisonne of the artist's drawings and watercolors, 
which is now in preparation. For this publication, the essay has been adapted to 
reflect a smaller survey. The works in the exhibition at the Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum are referred to in this essay by catalogue number (cat. no.) 
and are reproduced in the catalogue section of this book, pages 63—191. Works not 
in the exhibition are referred to by figure number (fig. no.) and are reproduced in 
the body of the essay. 

1 897-98: The Secondary-School Sketchbook 

The earliest record we have of Kokoschka's graphic work is a sketchbook dating 
from the 1897—98 school year at the Staatsrealschule, a secondary school in 
Vienna's 'Wahring district.' The sketchbook, recently discovered in the collection 
of a family member,' contains twenty-nine drawings in various mediums, an 
indication of how important it was to Kokoschka's art teacher, M. Schober, to 
familiarize his students with a full range of techniques. The motifs in the 
sketchbook drawings reveal a highly focused curriculum that may have been 
comparable to the preparatory class at the Vienna Kunstgewerbeschule (School of 
Applied Arts). The very first drawing in the sketchbook shows an apothecary jar 
with a medallion featuring Hygeia, the Greek goddess of medicine (fig. no. i). 
It documents Kokoschka's early interest in antiquity, which was to play a highly 
important role throughout his career. 

The discovery of the sketchbook has allowed us to attribute the pencil 
drawing Little Alother (cat. no. i), which Kokoschka gave to a cousin, to the same 
period. The sketchbook also shows that at this time Kokoschka began 
experimenting with ways in which to sign his work (this tendency continued 
until around 1906). Our newfound familiarity with his earliest signatures has 
made it possible for us to credit to Kokoschka drawings that were previously 
attributed to other artists. 

1901-04: Early Watercolors, Handmade Postcards, and Portrait DroNvings 

Kokoschka expressed himself more spontaneously in watercolor than in drawings. 
As evidenced by the previously unpublished Italian Farm Girl in a Landscape 
(cat. no. 2),' by 1901 his watercolor style had become comparatively mature. The 
inspiration for this work may have been a painting by Anton Romako (1832-1889) 
or August von Pettenkofen (1822-1889). The meaning of the watercolor is 
illuminated by the story "Gypsies," the artist's childhood memoir of summer 
vacations in the country.^ 

Between 1899 and 1902, Kokoschka created a series ot handmade postcards, 
most of which he sent to his cousin Hermine Freunthaller in Inzersdorf, near 
Herzogenburg in the province of Lower Austria. (A calendar card for the month 
of March [cat. no. 3], depicting a mill in a mountain landscape, has been 



I. Hygeia, 1897/98. Watercolor on paper, 16.6 x 
12 cm. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

facing page; Selbslbildnis {S elf-Portrait), poster for 
Der Stnrtn, 1910 (cat. no. 53). Color lithograph on 
paper, 67.3 x 44.7 cm. Private collection. Detail. 


2. F. X. Weisheit, cover illustration for the 
April 10, 1897 issue oijiigend. 

3. Anton Ritter von Kenner, illustration for 
Ranuamperl^ 1904. Color lithograph on paper. 
Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna. 

preserved although it was never sent.) Like Italian Farm Girl in a Landscape, the 
cards illustrate Kokoschka's mastery of the watercolor medium. 

The academic style of a pencil portrait from around 1903, Half-Length Portrait 
of a Girl Looking Down (cat. no. 4), evolved from the sketchbook drawings, and 
reflects the nineteenth-century values of Kokoschka's secondary-school education. 
Its very delicate lines have been drawn with a hard, sharp pencil; the head is 
modeled with shading in a range of densities. 

1904-06: First Years at the Kunstge>verbeschule 

Through Schober, Kokoschka received a government scholarship to the 
Kunstgewerbeschule at the k. k. Osterr. Museums fiir Kunst und Industrie 
(Royal and Imperial Austrian Museum of Art and Industry), which he began 
attending on October I, 1904. His first class. Elementary Drawing, consisted of 
drawing objects and animals and practicing composition; it was part of the 
required course of study, which was under the direction of Erich Mallina. 
Kokoschka also studied figure drawing with Mallina, anatomy drawing with 
Hermann Heller, and calligraphy and heraldry with Rudolf von Larisch.' 

In 1905, contour — not created with a single, continuous line, but rather with 
several fine lines placed side by side — began to gain importance in Kokoschka's 
drawings. This is particularly apparent in the pencil drawing Female Nude on a 
Stallion in a Forest (cat. no. 6).'' A similar approach is evident in a watercolor in 
the Albertina collection, Female Nude on a Galloping Horse in a Landscape with Fond 
(cat. no. 5), above all in the outlines of the rider and horse in the immediate 
foreground.' In the distance are a fallen horse with another nude female rider and 
a man approaching on a galloping horse. The euphoric quality of this watercolor 
is created both through the position of the prominent female rider — she is 
virtually standing as she rides — and through the dynamic created by the 
approaching male rider.* What is remarkable here are the strong, round strokes 
defining the landscape and lending depth and spatial volume to the composition.' 
The same technique is used to suggest accelerated movement, which is 
emphasized by the nude's hair blowing behind her.'° (The tension expressed in the 
body of the horse can be traced back to a drawing in the secondary-school 
sketchbook of the head, neck, and shoulders of a horse.) The cover illustration of 
the April 10, 1897 issue of the Munich magazine Ja^eW (fig. no. 2) may well have 
served as the inspiration for Kokoschka's drawing." It, too, depicts a nude woman 
riding bareback by a pond, her red hair flowing behind her." 

During the 1905—06 school year, Kokoschka attended classes in the 
Department for Teaching Candidates for Freehand Drawing in Secondary Schools, 
directed by Anton Ritter von Kenner (1871— 1951), while studying stylistics with 
Adolf Ginzel and art history with Eduard Leisching." The influence of Kenner 's 
drawing style (as in fig. no. 3) is most overt in three drawings Kokoschka made in 
spring 1906 (see, for example, St. Luke Fainting the Madonna and Child, fig. no. 4), 
which were published later in an issue of the newsletter Kneipzeitung that was 
dedicated to Kenner.'"* 

1906: Summer Vacation; 1906-07: Winter Semester, 
Begins Carl Otto Czeschka's Class 

On August 4, 1906, Kokoschka sent a postcard on which he had drawn a self- 
portrait — the earliest one known — to his mother's brother Juliane Loidl 
(1887-1976). Loidl lived in Lassing, a village at the foot of the Hochkar mountain 
in Lower Austria, and Kokoschka spent his summer vacations with Loidl 's 

family." In this self-portrait, he heightened its expressive power with a very self- 
confident and unmistakable line. As in the postcards to Freunthaller, Kokoschka 
was more individualistic and convincing in drawings that he produced outside of 

In autumn 1906, Kokoschka entered the Kunstgewerbeschule Painting 
Department, which was led by Carl Otto Czeschka (1878-1960). Czeschka's work 
may have already interested Kokoschka in the previous semester; he was 
undoubtedly familiar with the work of Czeschka's students shown at the 
exhibitions organized by the Kunstgewerbeschule. On the occasion of Czeschka's 
departure for a professorship at the Kunstschule Hamburg, Ludwig Hevesi wrote, 
"Every art lover still remembers [Czeschka's] students' exhibitions, where 
'Viennese graphic arts celebrated veritable triumphs ... a new woodcut spirit has 
arisen."'' Very few works ascribed to Czeschka date from 1902 through 1906; this 
may reflect Czeschka's almost exclusive dedication to his students.'* Hence, it 
would be misleading to suggest that the students imitated his style (see fig. 
no. 5). Kokoschka was, in fact, more heavily influenced by Kenner during his first 
semester of studies with Czeschka."' 

The ink-and-watercolor drawing Conversation at the Garden Fence (cat. no. 7) 
was created at the very beginning of the semester, in October 1906. Here, as in a 
group of stylistically similar works only now attributed to Kokoschka, the 
composition reveals a distinct horror vacni, clearly indicating a relationship to 
Czeschka's woodcut style. In the drawing, the figure of a young woman emerges 
out of surroundings composed of a complex interlocking pattern. The turning 
movement of her body — as well as the placement of the arm and birch tree, both 
accentuated with carefully applied opaque white — reduce and contain the 
foreground space. 

It has not been established whether Kokoschka produced the pen-and-ink 
Temptation of St. Anthony (cat. no. 8) — another new attribution — while he was still 
in Kenner's class or at the beginning of his winter semester with Czeschka. A 
certain awkwardness in the composition of the two nude girls in the foreground 
and the corrections in opaque white suggest that the drawing was more likely 
made shortly before the Kneipzeiti/ng issue dedicated to Kenner appeared in June 
1906. By comparison, Kokoschka's linocut of a female bather (fig. no. 6, 
discovered by Erwin Mitsch) is somewhat more mature and probably dates from 
Kokoschka's winter semester with Czeschka. That Kokoschka made linocuts is 
confirmed by a handwritten entry Czeschka made in the school's catalogtie tor the 
1906—07 school year."" All these works share a decorative approach, achieved 
above all by modeling the figures with broken contour lines. These works are also 
characterized by the exotic features of the young women's faces. 

In Kokoschka's design for the postcard Dairymaid and Cow {cdX. no. 9), we find 
elements similar to those in Temptation of St. Anthony: large forms created by 
interlocking, small, botanical shapes." In the postcard, this device is used to torm 
a conical evergreen; in Temptation of St. Anthony, the shapes form round treetops. 
"Volume in the postcard is achieved entirely through the illusion of perspective 
created by the relative sizes ol shapes. 

Very few examples of Kokoschka's efforts in Czesclika's department from the 
1906-07 school year have been located to date. But from Czeschka's entries in tlie 
Kunstgewerbeschule catalogue, we know that Kokoschka created a nLimber ot 
other works in this period, among them: "Designs for commercial prints, posters, 
pictorial broadsheets, bookplates, etc., designs for woodcuts .ind linocuts 
executed independently by the artist. Book art. Studies from n.iture. Pre|>aratory 


4. St. Luke Pjhiriiif; tlx Mjt/oniu tiiiJChiU, 1906. 
Solvent transfer print, 26 x 21 cm. H(K"hschulc (iir 
iingewandtc Kunst, Vienna. 

5. Girl Otto Czeschka. H.intitil Mjn. c.\. 1905. 
Color liniKut on piijx'r. Muscunn fiir Kunst und 
Gcwerbc, Hamburi;. 


6. Bather, 1906. Linocut on paper, 32.6 x 19.8 cm. 
Private collection. 

drawings for posters, book illustrations, and designs for typography."" Both a list 
of biographical dates and the school catalogues confirm that Kokoschka produced 
a design for the broadsheet The Monkey and the Parrot (lithograph version, fig. 
no. 7) for the Wiener Werkstatte during the 1906-07 school year.'' The design 
has since been lost.*"* 

According to the curriculum of the Kunstgewerbeschule and the teachers' 
remarks in the catalogues, Kokoschka had been trained in life drawing from the 
beginning of his studies. No life drawings from this period have been discovered, 
but it is likely that they would be similar in style to Female Nude on a Galloping 
Horse in a Landscape with Pond and Female Nude on a Stallion in a Forest. A drawing 
with five studies of a boy (fig. no. 8) could, like the earliest known painting by 
Kokoschka, Standing Nude Girl (Winkler/Schulz i), be attributed to the 1906-07 
winter semester. 

1907: Summer Semester 

An exhibition of paintings by Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) that opened in March 
1907 at Galerie JVliethke in Vienna may well have had some influence on 
Kokoschka's art." This can be inferred from a series of studies of girls with exotic 
facial features. Another indication is the introduction into his work of depictions 
of Tahitian girls wearing only skirts and endowed with rather plump limbs. In 
Standing Girl with Crossed Legs at Left, Seated Girl with Knees Drawn to the Chest at 
Right (cat. no. 18), Kokoschka juxtaposed the flat abstractions of clothing against 
the delicate contours ot the figure's body. 

In his autobiography, Kokoschka confirmed that he attended life-drawing 
classes and also studied anatomical drawing."' From a fairly reliable list that 
contains biographical information on Kokoschka, it seems that he was drawing 
"studies of nude children" as early as spring 1906.'^ In his own studio, which he 
first rented in the 1907 summer semester, Kokoschka drew children from a circus 
family that he brought in from the street. 

At around the same time, Kokoschka drew several nude studies of an old man 
and woman (for example, cat. nos. 20—21). Both were drawn in the life-drawing 
class at the Kunstgewerbeschule. He also drew young girls in his own studio, 
and, after the 1907—08 winter semester, began to draw his fellow student Lilith 
Lang.'* In the nude studies, Kokoschka focused on the characteristic features ot 
his models, attempting to reveal their personalities and lives through an extreme 
realism. Thus, in Standing Nude Old Man, Turned to Left — The Storyteller (cut. 
no. 21), he brought out the liver spots on his model's hands and the protruding 
veins on his left forearm, while in Seated Nude Old W'owai/ with Stockings (cat. 
no. 20), he iiiglilighted tiie model's sagging breasts and stomach folds. 

1907-08 School Year: Kokoschka Enters Berthold Loffler's Class; 
Works for the Wiener Werkstatte 

After C^zeschka left the Kunstgewerbesciuiie at the end of the 1907 summer 
semester, Kokoschka studied under Berthold Loffler, director of the Painting and 
Drawing Department. He also took a course in life drawing taught by Kenner 
and Loffler."' The catalogue for this school year indicates Kokoschka's 
accomplishment in Loffler's class: "Drawings and paintings from nature. Tapestry 
designs, exhibited and purchased at the 1908 Kunstschau [Art Sinow]. Illustrations 
for a fairy-tale book. Designs for vignettes, postcards, etc. Book art. Designs for 
a slide-and-shadow play, etc. Costumes."'" 

Apart from his nude studies of Lang, Kokoschka was already making many 


7. The Moiikc) mill tlx Purrol. 1907 (detail). 
Color lithograph on [wptr. Private collection. 

8. Fht Studies of a Boy, 1906. Pencil on paper. 
43 X 31 cm. Private collection. 


9- Stiig, Fox. and Magician^ 1907. Color lithograph 
on paper, 14.8 x 15. i cm. Private collection. 

10. Stag^ 1907- Diarium fiirjager cover motif, 8.4 x 
7.7 cm. Private collection. 

designs for Wiener Werkstiitte postcards in his first semester. Like Czeschka, 
Loffler allowed his students to accept paid assignments from the Wiener 
Werkstatte. Kokoschka also worked on the decor for the Cabaret Fledermaus, 
which was designed by the Wiener Werkstatte and opened on October 19, 1907. 
According to Werner J. Schweiger, "Cabaret Fledermaus represents both the first 
and the purest fulfillment of the Wiener Werkstatte's quest for a synthesis of the 

Kokoschka was committed to the idea of the Gesaiiitkiimtiverk. He designed 
and executed the color lithograph Stag. Fox. ami Magician (fig. no. 9) for the 
cabaret's first playbill, and even contributed to the show itself with his fairy-tale 
slide-and-shadow play Das getupfte Ei {The Speckled Egg). According to Hevesi, 
"a number of young talents from the Roller-Czeschka-Hoffmann group" 
participated in designing some 1,000 majolica tiles that decorated the walls of 
the barroom"; it is likely that Kokoschka was involved in this project, too. It is 
also possible that Kokoschka participated in designing the stage and the 
auditorium, as his name is mentioned in the playbills among the "design 

The opening performance of The Speckled Egg took place on October 28, 1907. 
Kokoschka created several figures (cat. no. 16) with movable joints attached to 
spring mechanisms." Becatise it was a shadow play, Kokoschka, echoing Javanese 
traditions, made the outlines as distinct as possible. The poet Max Mell 
(1882— I97I)''' supplied the only detailed account of this slide-and-shadow play: 
"The shepherd is sitting on a garden wall waiting for the dancer to come by. At 
first we see a stag, and then a fox pass by, before the object of desire appears. The 
idea of waiting was used to suggest that the fairy tale is not Indian, but rather 
the creation of the painter Kokoschka. But the whole poetic atmosphere of the 
slides leaves little room for doubting Kokoschka's originality."" This scene is 
reproduced in the color lithograph on the first playbill for Cabaret Fledermaus. 
Another scene showed the heroine of the story, a dancer in a meadow. In it, the 
stars "rose and swirled in the sky above her" — probably much as they do in the 
lithograph Stag. Fox. and Magician.''' For technical reasons. The Speckled Egg was 
performed but once; the only figures that have been preserved are those 
reproduced in this catalogue.'^ 

Kokoschka's tendency to geometrize is evident in the lithograph in the 
triangular shape of the shepherd's body and particularly in the contour of the 
stag's chest. A similar effect is achieved in a drawing of a stag in the Wiener 
Werkstatte archive that we have attributed to Kokoschka. By all indications it is 
a design for inlay work on furniture for the Wittgenstein family's Hochreit 
hunting lodge, which was decorated by the Wiener Werkstatte under the 
supervision of Josef Hoffmann (1870— 1956). However, a design by Czeschka was 
chosen for the final version.'* Kokoschka's design was eventually used on the cover 
of the Diari/nn fi/rjager (fig. no. 10). Kokoschka made two pen-and-ink drawings 
for this hunters' diary published by the Wiener Werkstatte." 

The very specific inclination of the Wiener Werkstatte to promote folk art is 
most pronounced in the postcard sketch Dairymaid and Cow. The postcard sketch 
Horseplay (cat. no. 11) could also be viewed in this regard. In Mother ivith Three 
Children (cat. no. 12), another sketch for a Wiener Werkstatte postcard, the 
rendering of the standing woman in profile and the shapes suggesting three 
folding screens in the background imply that Kokoschka was familiar with The 
Dancer, a small geometric design by Gustav Klimt (1862-1918). Klimt's sketch, 
which dates from ca. 1906—07, was among his working drawings for a frieze in 

the dining hall at Palais Stoclet in Brussels but was nevet used/" Because these 
sketches had not been shown publicly at that time, we must assume that 
Kokoschka saw them while visiting Klimt in his studio. 

The postcard sketch Girl by the Window (cat. no. lo) is also defined by 
geometry, as is seen in the overlapping, triangular shapes of the upper and lower 
body, the positioning of one hand over the other, and the lines in the apron. The 
geometry is repeated in the drawing of the room, the bird cage, and the ironwork 
in the oriel. Like Mother with Three Children, this sketch was created at around the 
same time as Kokoschka's series of lithographs for his fairy tale Die traiimenden 
Knaben (The Dreaming Boys). In the fourth lithograph in the series. The Distant 
Island (cat. no. 35), the female figure seen from behind displays distinct parallels 
to Girl by the Window. In addition, similar compositional elements can be found 
in the geometric structures of contemporaneous drawings of seminude and nude 

1907-08: George Minne's Influence on Kokoschka; The Dreaming Boys and 
Other Works for the Wiener Werkstatte 

Kokoschka's tendency toward increasingly angular contours evolved futther in 
the nude studies of Lang, whose brother Erwin Lang also went to school with 
Kokoschka.'' In all likelihood, the studies ol Lilith Lang were drawn in the 
winter of 1907— 08. Sixteen-yeat-old Lang's boyish figure correlated exactly to 
Kokoschka's artistic ideal, undoubtedly influenced by the boyish figures in 
sculptures by George Minne (1866— 1900). Kokoschka himself acknowledged this 
influence. ■*' It is further confirmed by the position of the arms of the girl in Two 
Standing Female Nudes Facing Each Other (cat. no. 17, recto), a study of Lang that 
echoes Minne's 1898 depiction of a kneeling boy (fig. no. 11)." These studies show 
that Kokoschka was interested in the rapid graphic representation of moving 
figures, an inclination he adopted from Japanese woodblock prints. Perhaps the 
drawings of Lang were also inspired by the pubescent figures in Klimt's 1902 
Beethoven Frieze (related drawing, fig. no. 12), which Kokoschka studied in great 
detail. In most of his drawings, Kokoschka effectively captured the essence of the 
girl, in both movement and depth of expression. Based on his portraits, it has 
generally been assumed that Kokoschka did not become adept at exposing the 
psyche of his subject tintil 1909. But his nude studies of Lang prove that he 
succeeded in doing so as early as 1907; moreover, the results are truly impressive. 

The studies culminated in the nude of Lang standing with her hands on her 
right hip. Kokoschka used this drawing for The Girl Li and I (cat. no. 39), the 
final lithograph in the series The Dreaming Boys (cat. nos. 32-39), which was made 
for a storybook." Kokoschka may have received the assignment to create a 
storybook for the Wiener Werkstatte near the end of 1907. It is typical of his 
rapid working habits that he delivered the drawings, most likely executed in pen 
and ink, to the director of the Wiener Werkstatte, Fritz Wiirndorfer, as early as 
February 4, 1908." On March 4, Warndorfer related the project's status to 

Right now we're prin/tng a storybook by Kokoschka. First we tried to have it printed by 
Reisser at his cost, because we heard that he was interested in working with us and was 
witling to lake the risk for doing the work. But when he saw Kok.n.<chka's material, the 
beast Celine out and he wrote to us that, in light of the emerging trend, it would be hopeless 
to try and sell this type of book — wkit a swine, he wanted us to give him some corny fife 
and driiiii. Bui now the Kokoschka stuff is so interesting that even though God knows we 

II. Geor4;c Minnc, Tlx Utile Knttling Om. 1896. 
Plaster, 47 cm hijjh. Private collection. 

li. Gustav Klimt. StjtiJing NuJt Cirl. Lift Profile, 
1902. CImlk on p.ipir, 44.6 x u.4 cm. Private 


13- Rudolf Kalvach, Indian Fairy Tale, ca. 1907/09. 
Oil on wood, 60 X 58. 6 cm. Hochschule fiir 
angewandte Kunsc, Vienna. 

don't have any money, we re going to print it after all, 
the show. ■"* 

$00 copies. Maybe we'll sell them at 

Although Warndorfer spoke ot printing the storybook in March, the 
production may have been delayed for a while. ^" The presentation of the book 
very likely took place on June 23, 1908, in the Vienna Kiinstschaii building. This is 
supported by an undated letter from Kokoschka to Mell, in which he wrote, "The 
title of the book is The Dreaming Boys, and it will be publicly unveiled by the 
Werkstatte on the 23rd of this month in the Kunstschaii house. "^'' Although the 
catalogue for a Kunstschaii that opened on June 2, 1908 lists a "storybook" under 
catalogue numbers 16, 17, 26, and 27, those were probably individual pictures 
from The Dreaming Boys. 

In January 1908, a highly acclaimed Auguste Rodin exhibition, which 
included 150 drawings, was held at the Kunsthandlung Heller. Kokoschka's 
interest in the art of Rodin (1840— 1917) is particularly evident in a group of his 
nude studies.^" These drawings are characterized by fluid lines rapidly set to paper 
and by an extremely spare use of watercolor. However, Kokoschka's drawings are 
noticeably distinct from Rodin's in the rendering of the models. As in the early 
nude studies from 1907, a psychological quality is prominent in Kokoschka's 
works. Like Rodin, Kokoschka lightly sketched a schematic contour in pencil, 
but, contrary to the Frenchman, he added strong lines over the preliminary 
drawmg. Kokoschka's more naturalistic approach is particularly apparent in the 
faces; his locution of body language is also more expressive. Rodin's coloration 
emphasizes flesh tones and is kept within the contours, while Kokoschka 
generally added watercolor accents to the extremities and without regard to 

Rodin's work showed Kokoschka a much looser and freer way of handling 
line and thus allowed him to break away from a conservative, academic drawing 
style. He could now disregard interior drawing and concentrate entirely on 
contour. This explains two parallel styles evident in The Dreaming Boys; one a 
more traditional technique, the other derived from the highly stylized figures in 
Rodin's nude studies. 

The Dreaming Boys is a series of eight lithographs printed in only a few 
colors, which Kokoschka then enhanced with watercolor and gouache. The 
Girl Li and I is the only print in the series in which the youthful nudes, 
surrounded by neutral auras, are not subordinate to the decorative system. 
Unlike the other figures, the two nudes are not anonymous; instead they are 
representations of Lang and Kokoschka himself. Kokoschka symbolically 
revealed his fantasy in the vertical plane ot red with two birds of paradise, 
which at once separates and joins the two figures; in his autobiography, the artist 
remarked that the fairy tale was meant as a love letter to Lang.'° The very 
flat foreground scene appears to be laid onto the landscape as in collage. 
We find a system of spatial zones stacked on top of one other, with a very high 
horizon." In this idyllic, fairy-tale scene, a resting gazelle melts into the 
exotic landscape and three figures in ritualistic poses lend it a transcendental 

A comparison of The Girl Li and I with the painting Indian Fairy Tale 
(fig. no. 13), created around 1907 by Kokoschka's fellow student Rudolf Kalvach 
(1889— 1932), suggests that Kokoschka was inspired by Kalvach's composition. 
This can also be discerned in a letter from Czeschka to Ankwicz von Kleehoven, 
dated September 11, 1952: 

In October, I assigned Koko to a large table next to the window. His neighbor was Kalvach 
the Croatian, son of a likable, honest locomotive engineer Kalvach's work had a very 
special quality, he was quite talented, and poor. too. Pretty soon, Koko started making 
things like Kalvach — God! Slowly, I had to show this little mimosa Koko that he was 
heading entirely in the wrong direction — that yon can't do things like that — that you have 
to find your inner self. Because he had seen very little art. I told him he had to look at a lot 
and try to understand the problems, graphic elements — translation, the shorthand 
simplification of the subject — all this was Greek to him. Very slowly he found himself. 
Without his noticing, I was able to bring him to create works that he's still exhibiting in 
his shows today. '"' 

Kokoschka's postcard design Nude Girl in an Open Cage in Front of a Flutist 
(cat. no. 13) is related thematicaily to The Girl Li and I. Based on its style, it may 
have been completed immediately after The Dreaming Boys. Both the figures and 
the landscape exemplify Kokoschka's tendency toward abstraction. The contours, 
formerly drawn with extreme sensitivity and meticulous attention to form, 
become more independent here. He reduced the delicate and elongated figures to 
their essence, stylizing them, and thus generalizing them. The landscape is 
treated as blocked and geometrized spatial zones, which create an effect that 
could easily be called Expressionist. Unlike The Girl Li and I, in which 
Kokoschka declared his love to Lang, in the postcard design he depicted her in a 
cage — albeit with an open door. An interpretation of this scene can be inferred 
from a letter addressed to Erwin Lang," in which we learn that Lang was 
traveling in "artistic circles " that Kokoschka did not approve of It is 
understandable that this introduced a certain distance between the two. In a late 
interview, Kokoschka claimed that he left Lang because of her bad reputation.*' In 
the postcard design, the cage separates the girl from the flute player — 
representing Kokoschka — who is still courting her. The parrots symbolize the 
circle of artists Kokoschka disapproved of and their pursuit of Lang. 

1 908: The Jubilee Procession; Other Postcard Designs 

A jubilee anniversary procession in honor ot the Emperor was to be held on 
June 12, 1908. Loffler's students, including Kokoschka, were assigned by the 
festival committee to outfit Group XIII, "Vintage and Harvest Festival in the 
Time of Joseph II." On March 18, 1908, a design competition for the procession's 
poster was announced in the press; April 3 was the deadline for submitting 
entries." Kokoschka's entry (which was not selected) shows two women waving 
palm fronds in adulation behind a flag bearer whose imaginative clothing is 
reminiscent of a uniform (cat. no. 40). The flag is yellow and black, the colors of 
the imperial family. Kokoschka's drawing style — especially the ritualistic 
expressions — is in keeping with the tone of homage and adulation. 

The postcard designs with a mother-and-child motif (see, for example, cat. 
nos. 14-15) begin to move further away from The Dreaming Boys. From this time 
on, the subject became increasingly important for the artist and reappeared often, 
except during the period when he was publishing graphic works in the journal 
Der Sturm. It is treated with impassioned urgency in Mother with Child on ,1 
Reindeer in the River (cat. no. 14). In it, a mother rides a reindeer through a river, 
holding her child with both iiands, her head protecting iier ciiild's. She is being 
threatened on all sides. The fish in the water are aggressive; on land, three 
figures — partially hidden in the underbrush — are leaning forward, wielding 
knives, their gestures similar to that of the serpent poised ior attack. The 

14. Gustav Klimt, Thi Thnt Agts. 1905. Oil on 
canvas, 180 x 180 cm. Galleria Nazionale d'Arte 
Moderna, Rome. 


15- The Great Flood, 1908, reproduced in the 
March 1908 issue of Erdgeist. 

mother's protective posture, with her head bent to cover the head ot her child, is 
derived from Khmt's painting The Three Ages (fig. no. 14). 

1908: Vienna Kunstschau; Nude and Seminude Dra>vings 

Kokoschka shovifed tapestry designs, entitled The Drea?n-Bearers , in a side room at 
the 1908 Vienna K/instscha/i. The designs, originally purchased by Warndorfer but 
now lost, were probably similar to the works published in Erdgeist (see fig. no. 15) 
and Girl in an Exotic Landscape, Fish in the Sea, and Boats with Gesticulating Figures. 
They generated a variety of responses from the critics. The Wiener Ahendpost 

Kokoschka saw Gauguin, van Gogh, and Rohrich. It confused him a little. His giant 
folding screen is a ridiculous triptych. It is the ancient Peruvian or ancient American 
Indian version of "little Moritz" (f'om Wilhelm Busch's satirical comic strip). There is 
nothing more ludicrous than Kokoschka's drawings. The show's organizers must have 
thought that the spectators would get very angry and upset in this room. But not a chance. 
They don't even laugh. They just look for the fastest way to get out of this cabin.-'' 

On June 2, 1908, the Deutsches Volksblatt reviewed the Kunstschau: 

The Dream-Bearers is the title of these designs, but they should be called Egyptian 
Memories, because the perspective is Egyptian and the motifs are also Egyptological. You 
see the holy family, Osiris and his with the little Horus on her lap, and you feel compelled 
to scream out in pain: "Oh you poor things, how you've changed — and much to your 
disadvantage! " '' 

Art historian Richard Muther (i860— 1909), writing in the June 6, 1908 issue 
of the Vienna newspaper Die Zeit. added: 

There are two rooms on the side with decorative furniture. The enfant terrible here is 
Kokoschka. Because premature success has damaged many a young artist {he sold everything 
he is showing on the first day), it would be pedagogically advisable to slow doivn. 
Therefore, Herr Kokoschka, your tapestry designs are despicable; Oktoberf est fairgrounds, 
raw Indian art. ethnographic museum, Gauguin gone crazy — what do I know. And yet, I 
can 't help myself. I haven 't seen a more interesting debut in years. The thing is. this enfant 
terrible is a true child, absolutely not a poseur, no, he's a good boy. He explained the 
meaning of his pictures to me himself, with a naivete that's not of this time. And while I 
listened to him. with his awkward gestures and childlike utterances, I said to myself 
inwardly: There's something real and fresh here, something elemental that demands 
expression. . . . I'll have to remember the name Kokoschka. Because anyone who can be such 
a cannibal at twenty-two might be a very original, serious artist at thirty.^" 

It is possible that Young Girl with Bare Upper Torso Leaning Fonuard (cat. 
no. 23) and Standing Young Girl with Bare Upper Torso (cat. no. 24) were also shown 
at the Kunstschau. They are directly related to Kokoschka's design tor the 
Kunstschau poster, which was actually printed, representing a young woman 
standing among grapevines (fig. no. 16). In all likelihood, the model is still Lang. 
Yet another type of geometric stylization is evident in the figure. In this instance, 
Kokoschka was following the examples of Josef Hoffmann, Koloman Moser 
(1868— 1918), and Klimt, the Austrian representatives of Jugendstil. Kokoschka's 
working process is easy to follow m the original design. He started with 

16. Kiimtschaii Poster, 1908. Lithograph on paper. 
93.5 X 38 cm. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, 

17. Rudolf Kalvach, Kinnlschau Poster, 1908. 
Lithograph on paper, 136.5 x 53.5 cm. Private 



l8. Murdered Woj/uin^ 1909 (detail), pencil sketch on 
the stage directions for the premiere ot Murderer, 
Hope of Women, as it appears in Albert Quendler's 
film Oskar Kokosebka — Erinnennig iOskar 
Kokoscbka — Alemory). 

watercolor in blue, green, and yellow, which he laid over the pencil sketch as a 
wash. To bring out the colors even more intensely, he first worked over the 
schematic watercolor sketch with unglazed tempera. Finally, he accentuated the 
contours of the head and arms with broad ink lines. The cropped edges of the 
paper indicate that the format was originally slightly larger, and the top of the 
head was rounder and was meant to continue to the top edge of the paper. The 
lettering added to the top and bottom in the final poster is missing here. A 
comparison to the other poster for the Vienna Kunstschau (fig. no. 17), designed by 
Kalvach, clearly demonstrates that there was still a close relationship between the 
two artists' work in the 1908 summer semester. 

The same flattening of the head and chin, seen for the first time in 
Kokoschka's poster design, are apparent in the frontal and three-quarter views of 
the figures in cat. nos. 25-29. The gestures are also very important in this group, 
particularly when poses emphasize volume, such as in cat. no. 29. This tendency 
is especially pronounced in cat. nos. 25, 28, and 29, pencil-and-watercolor 

The pencil-and-watercolor drawing that Kokoschka referred to as The Lunatic 
Girl (cat. no. 26) is from the collection of Adolf Loos (1870— 1933), Kokoschka's 
first great supporter and patron.-' Most likely, it represents the dancer Elisabeth 
"Bessy " Bruce (1886— 1921), whom Loos had met in the Tabarin, a Viennese 
cabaret, where she appeared with the Barrison Sisters dance troupe. The shape of 
the young woman, sitting on the floor in a relaxed position and immersed in 
thought, is rhomboidal; the pattern on her dress is also defined geometrically. 
The same approach is evident in cat. nos. 25 and 28. It is possible that all of these 
drawings are related to the dance troupe's performance. At the time, dance played 
a very important role in Vienna; at least two performances took place at the 
Kitiistscha//'s Summer Theater. The Wiesenthal sisters had appeared before the 
public for the first time at the Cabaret Fledermaus. That same year, they 
performed at the garden theater of the Kunstschau, and the Nei/e freie Presse 
reported that their dance enthralled the masters of the K/instschau themselves, 
Klimt, Alfred Roller, and Mell. In his book about Grete "Wiesenthal, dance 
historian Oscar Bie wrote that she and her sisters "gave their bodies to the 
waltzes of Schubert and Lanner and liberated movement from Minne, 
Mackintosh, and Moser."'° 

For the second performance at the Summer Theater, Mell's Der silherne Schleier 
(The Silver Veil) was presented, a pantomime danced by the "Wiesenthals.'" From a 
previously unpublished letter from Mell to a Mr. Braun, dated October 8, 1908, 
we know that Kokoschka had made drawings tor The Silver Veil that Mell had not 
yet seen, but he was nonetheless considering publishing them to illustrate his 
story. "*" A few of Kokoschka's studies mentioned in connection with dance could 
be related to these drawings for Mell. 

Because of a gap in the chronology of the drawings and watercolors produced 
alter this performance, we know that we have not located all of the drawings that 
Kokoschka created in this very important period. It is also possible that this gap 
reflects an interruption in the artist's work due to depression, which in turn could 
have been a response to the largely devastating critiques of his work at the 

1 908-09: Works from the Winter Semester; Murderer, Hope of Women 

Mother with Child {cat, no. 27), which depicts the familiar subject in a standing 
position, was probably made as early as fall 1908.'" Unlike other similar drawings. 

the flattening of the head is particularly prominent in the figure of the mother. 
The piece foreshadows the artist's tendency to uglify, which escalated 
considerably in the works that followed, particularly in the series Murderer. Hope 
of Women. 

According to the literature on the subject, Kokoschka wrote his most 
important drama, Murderer, Hope of Women, in 1907. We maintain, however, that 
the first version of the work, originally titled Hope of Women and published in Der 
Sturm in 1910, should definitely be seen as a literary sequel to The Dreaming Boys, 
which dates to 1907-08/'' It therefore cannot have been written in 1907. 

A sketch on the stage directions for the premiere oi Murderer. Hope of Women 
(fig. no. 18), which took place during the 1909 Internationale Kunstschau , shows 
that, in contrast to the poetic, self-contained atmosphere in The Dreaming Boys, 
Kokoschka was now interested in using as spectacular an approach as possible to 
illustrate ugliness and brutality. The idyllic encounter of the two sexes in The 
Dreaming Boys becomes, in Murderer, Hope of Women, a serious confrontation with a 
deadly ending. In Murderer. Hope of Women I (cat. no. 75), the wolf lapping up 
blood in the foreground symbolizes the murderer's lust for blood. Kokoschka 
emphasizes the difference between the sexes by endowing the man with 
unrestrainable power, allowing him control over the woman. The ink drawings 
for Murderer, Hope of Women (also see cat. no. 76) were probably completed as early 
as spring 1910. 

1908-09: Robinson; El Greco 

As with The Girl Li and I, there are clear indications that the drawings 
Kokoschka made for a story based on that of Robinson Crusoe'" (cat. 
nos. 44—45) were inspired by the art of Kalvach (such as his woodcut of the 
Trieste harbor, fig. no. 19). Kokoschka translated the effect of the woodcut 
technique into his drawings. It should not be overlooked that Kalvach, like 
Kokoschka, colored his works in select areas; this considerably enhances the effect 
of the color. 

Kokoschka's Bearded Man Sailing Up a River in a Tropical Landscape (cat. no. 44) 
depicts a man in a sailboat passing by a coral reef. The sailor could very well be 
Robinson Crusoe, who saved himself in a sailboat after being shipwrecked. There 
is a fascinating beauty about the tropical island, with its lush flora and fauna. 
Kokoschka's preoccupation with the exotic led to the creation of new forms, 
harbingers of the distinctive drawing style of the Der Sturm period. 

Bearded Fisherman (cat. no. 43), sometimes called Japanese Fisherman, was most 
likely inspired by a Chinese or Japanese woodcut. This is a good example of 
Kokoschka's search for new forms and graphic expressions, which ultimately led 
to the very complex illustrations for Murderer. Hope oj Women of 1909-10. 

The El Greco exhibition held at the Paris Salon d'Automne in October 1908 had 
a profound impact on the entire art world. As early as November 1908, a number 
of excellent, large-format reprodiictions after El Greco (by Ilanfstaengl, 
Bruckmann, Braun, and others) were available at the Kunsthandlung Heller in 
Vienna. Aldabert Franz Seligmann wrote: "Three issLics of the French magazine 
Les Arts also have numerous reproductions of the master's jiaintings, allowing a 
fairly comprehensive overview of El Greco's entire oeuvre.""" Carl Moll, who in 
fiill 1909 traveled to Spain with Klimt to see El Greco's paintings, possessed a 
complete collection of the reiirodLictions of his works. Kokoschka, typically, was 
quick to react to El Greco's art; he was already incorporating the mlluence in the 
works he produced in the winter of 1908-09. 





















19. Rudoll Kalvach, Ships in ilx Fori oJ Irian, 
1907/08. Color woodcut on p;ipcr. Giilcric bci 
AllxTtina. Vienna. 

20. El Greco. of Count Ori^jz, 1586 (detail). 
Oil on canvas. 480 x 360 cm. Santo Tome, 
Toledo, Spain. 


Utinam delectet! 

21. Vincent van Gogh, Street in Saint es-Maries II, 
1888 (detail). Pen and brush and ink on paper, 
24.4 X 31.8 cm. The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Bequest. 

22. Uthtam dekctet! , 1910, reproduced m the 
Novembet 3, 1910 issue of the magazine Der Sturm. 

The distinctive facial shape found in El Greco's Burial of Count Orgaz (fig. 
no. 20) is evident in several of Kokoschka's female figures, above all in Dreaming 
Seaman (cat. no. 45). (It also appears, in modified form, throughout the Murderer. 
Hope ofWotnen drawings). Dreaming Seaman probably represents the hallucination 
of the shipwrecked Crusoe. With his head tilted horizontally in a dreaming pose, 
he visualizes four sisterlike figures with long hair, who, in keeping with maritime 
legend, could be interpreted as sirens.''' The very pointed faces of the women are 
indicative here: they will be repeated in Lovers in an Exotic Landscape with 
Animals 11 (cat. no. 51), one of two sketches for a bookplate for Emma Bacher, and 
in Mother with Child Riding a Doe (cat. no. 47). 

1908-09: The Mother-and-Child Motif; Vincent van Gogh 

In Mother with Child Ruling a Doe (also known as The Flight to Egypt), Kokoschka 
resumed his engagement with the mother-and-child theme. The crescent moon, 
the lantern held by a shepherd in the background, the sleeping animals, and the 
mother's closed eyes identify it as a nocturnal scene. This is further emphasized 
by the balance of the composition, which lacks any movement. But the feeling of 
night is conveyed above all through the use of ink and the density of the 

Many of the motifs and stylistic idiosyncrasies in Mother with Child Riding a 
Doe reveal Kokoschka's interest in the art of Minne and 'Vincent van Gogh. There 
is an especially close affinity to Minne's illustrations for Emile Verhaeren's Les 
Villages illiisoires (1895). The hatching in Mother with Child Riding a Doe is 
particularly effective, as are the short, tight, wavy lines and swirls, which 
Kokoschka borrowed from van Gogh (see fig. no. 21). Kokoschka initially used 
the swirl motif to represent tufts of grass; when arranged around a central point, 
as in this drawing, they become flowers. 

Mother and Child in Armchair with Compote on Table (cat. no. 46), Kokoschka's 
only drawing of a woman breast-feeding, may have been produced around the 
same time or shortly before Mother luith Child Riding a Doe. However, the focus of 
Mother and Child in Armchair is on its composition, with its pictorial space 
barkening back to the early postcard designs, as do the landscape elements. But 
the flattening of the woman's head is reminiscent oi Mother with Child Riding a 
Doe. Kokoschka reproduced Mother and Child in Armchair in a much denser, yet 
more transparent, form in an ink drawing published in the November 3, 1910 
issue of the Berlin art magazine Der Sturm (fig. no. 22). 

1 909: Designs for Costumes and Stage Scenery; Fans for the 
Wiener Werkstatte; Bookplates 

From a file in the 'Vienna Kunstgewerbeschule archives, we know that Kokoschka 
produced the following in his last school year (1908—09): "Studies from nature, 
illustrations, posters, costume designs, designs for stage scenery, painted fans for 
the Wiener Werkstatte." The entry also notes that "some of these works were 
exhibited at the 1909 Kunstschau. where their originality caused a sensation.'"'* 

Design for a Stage Curtain with Two Scenes from a Split Set (cat. no. 50) shows the 
kind of stage that was frequently used in Shakespeare productions. '''^ (Kokoschka's 
passion for Shakespeare was awakened in secondary school by his teacher Leon 
Kellner, who was also the president of the Austrian Shakespeare-Gesellschaft 
[Shakespeare Society}). In Kokoschka's drawing, the two stages are rather small in 
comparison to the set decorations, which take up a little over half the page. On 
the left stage, the drama being played is that of a naked man who is incarcerated; 

the scene on the right involves his nighttime Hberation by force. Kotcoschka drew 
the two stages with an exaggerated perspective, while also including in the 
foreground the space between the stages and the audience. The actors are 
rendered with fine lines, in contrast to the bulky ornamentation of the theater. A 
costume design, Count Platon Aleksandrovkh Ziibov (cat. no. 49), may be related 
to another theater work, a backdrop depicting a reception for a stately personage. 
It is possible that it was created for a play set in the time of Catherine the Great, 
whose favorite was Count Zubov.'" 

A folding fan for the Wiener Werkstatte (cat. no. 48) is closely related in style 
to the design for the split set and, therefore, would probably have been created 
during the summer semester ot 1909.^' This date is further supported by the 
inclusion of a bald figure bearing Kokoschka's facial features — a reference to the 
artist, who shaved his head in self-chastisement after the press's scornful critique 
of the 1909 Internationale Kiimtschaii. As he did this sometime after May 1909, the 
fan must have been produced no earlier than then.'' 

The fan is divided into seven segments; three pictorial scenes are placed 
between tour exclusively ornamental panels. Resembling Kokoschka, the bald, 
winged figure in the first pictorial scene wears loose clothing and holds in his left 
hand a lamb at rest. He probably represents John the Baptist as the Lamb of God, 
who is described as an angel in the Legenda aiirea. Once again, Kokoschka may 
have found some inspiration from a work by El Greco, St. John the Evangelist and 
St. Francis (Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence). In Kokoschka's fan, John the Baptist 
is pointing to a soaring bird, most likely a dove symbolizing the Holy Ghost. In 
the pictorial scene at right, Kokoschka depicts himself riding away on a horse. 
Holding a flower in his left hand, he turns back to face a girl in the central, dark 
field, who is combing her long, dark hair. Behind the girl is a three-tiered bowl 
filled with exotic fruits.'' A red fish is swimming in a glass goblet to her right; a 
reptile is on the floor, and a bird is locked in a cage.'' The ornaments and symbols 
in the background are, like the very idea of painting a fan, of Far Eastern origin. 
The illustrations exemplify Kokoschka's endeavor to secularize motifs that are 
generally interpreted as Christian. 

Lovers in an Exotic Landscape with Animals II (cat. no. 51) is one of two similar 
bookplate designs Kokoschka made for Emma Bacher (1867-1957),"' neither of 
which were executed. They can be dated fairly precisely because of an April 27, 
1909 letter from Kokoschka to his client. In both designs, the lovers are seated in 
the center; the young man is clearly a self-portrait, while the girl with very long 
hair is reminiscent of the sirens in Dreaming Seaman. Kokoschka's island motil 
appears again in the bookplate, although greatly abstracted, as the site where the 
lovers find refuge. The stag, sun, moon, and wolf (or lion) are on opposite sides in 
the two versions of the bookplate. 


1 909: Internationale Kunstschau 

Certain ]iarallels exist between Lovers in an Exotic Landscape with Animals II and 
P/'f/i?, Kokoschka's poster for the Summer Theater at the 1909 Kinislschaii (cat. 
no. 52). The poster publicized Kokoschka's drama Mi/rdenr. Hope of Women as well 
as the comedy Sphinx iind Slrnhiiuun {Sphinx and Scarecrow). The similarity to the 
bookplate design is found primarily in the harmonious balance of the 
background, figures, and lettering. In addition, the sideways crescent moon and 
the spotted sun appear in both as symbols ot man and woman." While the design 
for the bookplate shows two lovers embracing, the highly expressive man and 
woman in the poster represent the much tlittercnr events ot his drama hXiirdcrer. 


23. Murderer, Hope of Women, 1909 (detail), pencil 
sketch on the stage directions for the premiere of 
Murderer, Hope of Women, as it appears in Albert 
Quendler's film Oskar Kokoschka — Erinneriingen 
{Oikiir Kokoschka — Alemories). 

Hope of Women. In a review in the July 7, 1909 edition of the Wiener allgemeine 
Zeitimg, Paul Frank wrote: "Who wouldn't have stood mystified before the poster 
that has been brandished on every wall of late? Who would have recognized what 
the painter intended? Well, now you know: it was a pieta, Christ's Descent from 
the Cross. Left the sun, right the moon, in the center two figures, one head is a 
skull, the other, male, has been stripped of all skin, revealing a mass of bloody 

In the context of the drama, first published in 1910, the poster gains new levels 
of meaning. The artist referred to the poster's symbolism in his autobiography: 
"Immediately, I designed and got printed the poster expressing the content of the 
play: The man is blood-red, the colour of life. But he is lying dead in the lap of a 
woman who is white, the colour of death."'" By touching the woman, the dying 
man regains his life force; she, in turn, loses hers and dies.^' This idea of the 
transfer of blood from one body to the other is corroborated in a letter from 
Kokoschka to Alma Mahler, dated July 27, 1912, in which he wrote: "I feel as if 
all my blood might ebb out of me, silently and imperceptibly, from a wound in 
my heart, and flow slowly into you."'*° 

Contrary to some scholarly speculation, the reviews oi Murderer, Hope of Women 
indicate that the drama provoked no scandal. The play was either celebrated with 
great enthusiasm or dismissed as a joke."" Kokoschka 's autobiography provides 
further insight into the production: 

Additionally there was the eerie effect of the firebrands that the Amazons snatched from the 
warriors' hands at the storming of the citadel, and which at first menaced the makeshift 
wooden set with their flames and then smouldered red in the darkness. . . . I painted their 
faces and bodies, where exposed. In this, I had been helped by my visits to the 
ethnographical museum. There 1 had learned how primitive peoples, presumably as a 
reaction to their fear of death, had decorated the skulls of the dead with facial features, 
with the play of expressions, the lines of laughter and anger, restoring them to the 
appearance of life. In a similar way I decorated the actors' arms and legs with nerve lines, 
muscles and tendons, just as they can be seen in my old drawings. *' 

The only known visual documentation of the premiere is a sketch showing the 
action on stage (fig. no. 23), drawn on a page from the stage directions. 

1909-10: Portraits; Works for Herwarth Walden's Magazine Der Sturm 

At the end of the 1909 summer semester. Roller, the director of the 
Kunstgewerbeschule, urged Kokoschka to leave the school.*' At the suggestion of 
Loos, Kokoschka also stopped working for the Wiener Werkstatte.'""* Around this 
same period, he met Karl Kraus (1874— 1936), who, with Loos, introduced 
Kokoschka to the circle of the Viennese educator Dr. Eugenie Schwarzwald 
(1872-1940). Through the Akademischen Verband fiar Literatur und Musik 
(Academic Society for Literature and Music) he also met the composers Arnold 
Schonberg (1874-1951), Alban Berg (1885-1935), and Anton von Webern 
(1883 -1945). 

Kokoschka virtually ceased his graphic production from this time until 1910. 
In his autobiography, Kokoschka wrote that at the Internationale Kunstschau he 
discovered Modern painting."' While this newfound interest may have led him to 
a temporary abandonment of works on paper, a stronger explanation stems from 
the intervention of Loos, who, deeply impressed by Kokoschka 's talent, arranged 
numerous portrait commissions for him. The most recent research shows that 

Kokoschka executed at least thirty-three paintings (thirty-one portraits, one still 
life, and one landscape) before February 1910."^ Only two independent portrait 
drawings were produced in this period; that is, they cannot be considered 
preliminary sketches for paintings; Portrait of Adolf Loos (fig. no. 24) and Portrait 
of Karl Kraus I (cat. no. 58). The lack of studies directly related to the portrait 
paintings indicates that Kokoschka made his preliminary drawings straight on 
the canvas. A comparison of Portrait of Karl Kram I with a portrait painting of 
Kraus (fig. no. 25) reveals two entirely separate ways of working. Most obviously, 
the drawing is considerably more expressive. We believe that Kokoschka created 
the drawing around late October or early November 1909, shortly after he 
completed a portrait painting of Constantin Christomanos (Wingler 1956, no. 14; 
Winkler/Schulz 29), which represents the culmination of this phase. In the 
drawing, Kokoschka further developed his technique of using constantly 
changing line widths to animate his structures. 

When Herwarth Walden (pseudonym of Georg Levin, 1878-1941) visited 
Vienna in February 1910, Kokoschka took the opportunity to draw his portrait 
(cat. no. 54). This is confirmed — albeit indirectly — in a letter from Loos to 
Walden dated October 4, 1909,"^ in which Loos invited him to Vienna so that 
Kokoschka could paint his portrait for inclusion in an exhibition of his work 
planned for Paul Cassirer's Berlin gallery. However, the Walden portrait painting 
was not executed until late June 1910 (Wingler 1986, no. 38; Winkler/Schulz 49). 
It is likely, then, that the drawing was produced instead of a painting while 
Walden was in Vienna. Thus, unlike the drawing of Kraus, which is characterized 
by the exceptionally expressive effect of spontaneous lines applied to paper 
without any preliminary sketch, that of Walden preceded a painting and is a well 
thought-out likeness with immense clarity. It may be that Kokoschka first drew a 
sketch in pencil and — probably at a later date — worked over it in ink. In some 
areas he followed the pencil lines precisely, but in others, particularly the outline 
of the face, he made changes. Only the uneven lines, drawn with a wide nib to 
deliberately accentuate the shape of Walden's head, are reminiscent of the Kraus 
portrait. In the drawings for Murderer. Hope of Women, which were created a short 
time later, these uneven lines become tighter and straighter. As with the Walden 
portrait, he made preliminary pencil sketches and finished the drawings in ink. 

We have, for the first time, ordered the Murderer. Hope oj Women series 
following the narrative of Kokoschka 's text. The importance of the series, the first 
three drawings of which were published in Der Sturm,"" lies not in their being 
illustrations for a drama, but that in each one Kokoschka focuses on a violent 
confrontation between a man and woman. Several motifs heighten their dramatic 
impact: in the first three, the man is shown holding a knife, which contradicts 
the text; the first drawing (cat. no. 75) includes a dog, an image that appears 
repeatedly in Kokoschka's works on the subject ol murder. In this same drawing, 
the placement of the artist's initials is also noteworthy, lor they appear on tiie 
woman's left thigh, relating the work to a passage in the pla\- aboLit a brand that 
the man burns into the woman's "red flesh."'" In the drama, tills act triggers the 
woman to cry out "in terrible pain" and to woimd the man in his side with a 
knife""; he fills to the ground and is placed in captivity by his own vassals. The 
woman comes to the realization that the man "can neither hve nor die," creeps to 
his cage, and "reaches through the bars with her arm and pokes into his wound, 
panting lustfully and wickedly, like a viper.'"" It is this second stabbing that is 
reproduced in the drawing. 

The next illustration (cat. no. 76) depicts the confrontation between the man. 


04. Pitrfrair of AJnlf Ijmis, 1909. rcpr<xluced in tlu- 
lunc 50, 1910 issue ot Dtr Sturm, 

25. Porirtiit oJ'Ktirl Kraus, 1909. Oil on canvas, 
100 X 74.5 cm. Destroyed. 

30 2(5. The Pretty Roller Skater, 1910. Pen and ink on 

paper, 19.8 x 16.5 cm. Missing since 1950-51. 

27- Portrait of Richard DehmeU 1910. Pen and ink on 31 

paper, 31.5 x 20.8 cm. Private collection. 


armed with a knife, and the woman, who collapses against his body. Here, as in 
the poster for the Summer Theater, the moon and the spotted sun represent the 
two sexes. The greatest difference between this drawing and its predecessor is 
that in it the man has regained his full strength and the woman, weakened, falls 
to the ground. According to the play, when the woman touches the man's wound, 
her blood mingles with his, ultimately causing her death. The brutality is most 
extreme in the third drawing in the series, an effect furthered by the dog lapping 
up a pool of blood. 

Kokoschka created at least three illustrations at the Wintergarten Variete in 
Berlin through his activities as a reviewer for Der Sturm: a portrait of Archie A. 
Goodale, The Pretty Roller Skater (fig. no. 26), and Snake Dance (cat. no. 74). The 
latter, published in the September 22, 1910 issue oi Der Sturm, is, through its 
intricate detail, dense structure, and ornamental quality, related stylistically to 
the last drawing in the Murderer, Hope of Women series. Kokoschka worked in this 
manner for only a very short time, the style peaking in The Pretty Roller Skater and 
in a portrait of Richard Dehmel (fig. no. 27). 

With the Albertina exhibition, we were able to ascertain that both Standing 
Female Nude with Hips Turned to the Left, Viewed from the Back (cat. no. 30) and 
Female Nude Leaning Forward, Supporting Herself with Her Hands on the Ground 
(cat. no. 31) — previously dated 1909 and 1908 respectively — should be dated 1910, 
contemporary with the drawings created for Der Sturm. This is discernible 
especially when we compare Standing Female Nude with Hips Turned to the Left, 
Viewed from the Back with Murderer. Hope of Women L The similarities are most 
apparent in the hair, composed of bundles of short lines drawn in divergent 
directions. Particular notice should be taken of the rootlike formations on some of 
the hairs, reminiscent of nerve fibers or veins; this motif appears as early as 1908, 
in the drawing Young Girl with Bare Upper Torso Tying Back Her Hair (cat. no. 25). 
Kokoschka 's inclination to make human forms ugly is strongly evident in Female 
Nude Leaning Forward. Supporting Herself with Her Hands on the Ground . This pencil 
drawing, watercolored in only a few areas, again suggests an immediate 
connection to the Der Sturm period. A comparison between this drawing and 
Snake Dance, as an example of the Der Sturm works, reveals similarities in the 
figures' hair dissipating into the background and the flattened chins. 

191 0-11: Portraits 

In Portrait oj Karin Michaelis (cat. no. 55), characterized by fine, nervous lines, 
Kokoschka paid particular attention to the smallest details, in particular 
his subject's wrinkles and the area around her eyes. Fearing he would recognize 
her "inner face" and reveal it publicly, Michaelis (1872-1950) had not wanted 
to be portrayed by Kokoschka. She described how the drawing (which, 
despite her wishes, was published in the January 28, 1911 issue o{ Der Sturm) 
was created: 

/ was packing; he was drawing. When I bent down, he would crawl around on the floor so 
as not to lose sight of my face. The picture was done in twenty minutes — hut what a 
picture! Three months of jail wouldn't have been enough to compensate for the damage he 
did to my "good name and reputation. "'"' 

Portrait of Dr. Hermann Schwarzwald {czx.. no. 56), completed on January 21, 
1911, captures Schwarzwald (1871-1939) in the act of writing the name of his 
friend JMichaelis. Although the contours of the shoulders are incomplete, as in the 

1909 portrait of Loos discussed above and similar in style, the torso is perceived as 
a self-contained form. 

In 1911, Dr. Eugenie Schwarzwald hired Kokoschka as a drawing teacher at her 
school. Kokoschka was dismissed in 1912 after bureaucratic intervention for 
reasons made clear in a report "on the state of affairs at Dr. Eugenie 
Schwarzwald's Lyceum for Girls" issued by the k. k. Ministerium fiir Kultus und 
Unterricht (Royal and Imperial Ministry for Culture and Education) on February 
13 of that year: 

With almost fictional embellishment, Dr. Eugenie Schwarzwald relates how she met 
Kokoschka in Berlin last year, how he was in a deplorable mental and physical state and 
without any money, how she took pity on him and even put him up in her home like a son, 
hoping to lead him to a better artistic path. She claims he is extremely talented, that he has 
only become so savage because of the sinister Klimt group and the Modernists from the 
museum's school who chased him before the public as a scapegoat for their movement. Hubert 
{sic!} is, as she says, the child in her house now, and she is hoping that he will gradually 
become a better person and a better artist, since he had shown an eminent talent. She claims 
that she also discovered his phenomenal capacity as an instructor and therefore assigned him 
to the second grade {equivalent to the sixth grade in the United States} this year because 
the other two teachers ' schedules did not allow them to take on the class. She was hoping 
that he would be able to fulfill the requirements using his approach. But unfortunately this 
was not the case. First, the young man did not seem to adhere to the curriculum, and he 
allowed the girls to draw whatever they liked, in a "super-Modernist" and "illustrative" 
style. Since September of last year, they have produced nothing but imagined pictures with 
figures; They dreiv and illuminated street scenes, people, etc., childish blunderings, mostly 
half-finished daubs, entirely in the style of the art he himself was senselessly and 
shamelessly exhibiting at the Kunstschau at that time. There was no indication of 
instruction or teaching whatsoever, because not a single model was copied, and instead only 
imaginative illustrations were made, incompletely executed by the untrained, unskilled 
hands. Our examiner distinctly noticed how unhappy the girls were about creating this 
kind of art. This kind of tomfoolery may be fun to children for about two to three hours, 
but then even the childish mind revolts against such distasteful games. The undersigned 
therefore gave Mr. Kokoschka the strictest instruction to put an immediate end to this 
ludicrous behavior and to stick to the relevant methods. He seriously advised him that 
drawing lessons must be given, and that the time must not be wasted on experimental art, 
which proves nothing except that the children still have no idea how to do anything. 
Dr Schwarzwald was apprised of the observations and she has promised to do everything 
necessary to put an end to the grievance. " 

191 1: Illustrations for Albert Ehrenstein's Tubutscb; Robert Delouncy; Portraits 

Kokoschka's graphic style reached maturity in the twelve ink drawings he made 
for the book Tubutsch by Albert Ehrenstein (1886-1950), which appeared in 1912."^ 
In some of the illustrations, Kokoschka followed Ehrenstein's narrative very 
closely, while in others he interpreted it freely. Stylistically, we hnd both proto- 
Futurist and Cubist tendencies in the iiltistrations, once again demonstrating 
Kokoschka's rapid absorption of contemporary developments in art." The iigurcs 
in Tubutsch and Death (cat. no. 77) have an exaggeratedly plastic equality while also 
overlapping with a certain transparency. The diagonal emphasis ot the 
composition is common to other drawings, including the illustration Knight John 
of Death I (cat. no. 78). Inspired by the drawings of Robert Delaunay (1885-1941; 
see fig. no. 28), which were probablv introduced to him by Walden, Kokosciika 


28. Robert Delaunay, Tlie Toner, 1910. Pen and ink 
on paper, 29 x 20 cm. 


29- Visitation^ 1912. Oil on canvas, 80 x 127 cm. 
Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna. 

began at this time to explore space to a mucli greater extent than before. 

Between November 13 and 20, 1911, Kokoschka redrew a pencil drawing in 
ink, the result being Portrait of Professor Levin Ltidwig Schi/cking II (cat. no. 57). 
The two drawings, which are virtually identical save for the medium, are closely 
related stylistically to Knight John of Death I. Following a specific geometric 
system, the scholar's skull is formed with the finest of lines, like a spider's web. In 
the hair, lines cross one another repeatedly, generating a multitude of geometric 
shapes, while in parts of the face, especially around the eyes, mouth, and 
moustache, the lines are highly concentrated, allowing the spirit of the sitter to 
emerge. In a letter to Bacher, Kokoschka's reference to a nervenirrsinniges (insanely 
exciting) portrait'^ is entirely justified by these drawings, which are distinct from 
his previous efforts. 

1912: Portraits 

The Self-Portrait that Kokoschka drew in a guestbook (cat. no. 61) is a much 
closer likeness of the artist than a poster version printed for a lecture he gave at 
the Wiener Akademischen Verband fur Literatur und Musik (Vienna Academic 
Society for Literature and Music) on January 26, 1912. While Kokoschka 
obviously based his self-portrait on his Der Sturm poster of 1910, in the later work 
he used an extremely spare technique to endow the face with a distinctly 
spiritual — almost transcendental — look. The spokes emanating from the pupil of 
Kokoschka's left eye bear particular notice. Similarly aggressive lines, recalling 
the ink drawings for Murderer, Hope of Women, can be found on the neck and chin. 
A review of Kokoschka's lecture "Vom BewuBtsein der Gesichte" ("On the 
Nature of Visions") provides the only detailed account of its content; as such, it 
offers some insight into Kokoschka's artistic philosophy at the time: "Reality 
itself is no more than a show in which all of the soul's deeds are played. . . . 
Currently, the desire for form is characterized by the representation of our fellow 
human beings and the domination of our fellow beings. The Romanic drive, the 
mastery of self, is replacing the Germanic addiction to power over outside ideas. 
These thoughts are also expressed in the portrait. The sphere of a powerful person 
is so vast that he can affect another person's consciousness and impress his 
thoughts on their image, in the same way that a person can take on the traits of 
someone he lives with for a long time and influences.'"" 

In Young Woman in an Armchair, Supporting Her Head with Her Right Hand 
(cat. no. 65) we can still detect the delicate grid of fine lines that may be derived 
from the Tubutsch drawings. It was with this drawing that Kokoschka began to 
create works in black chalk. 

Kokoschka drew Portrait ofWaslav Nijinsky (cat. no. 59) on the occasion of the 
dancer's performance in Vienna on June 20, 1912. To express Nijinsky 's unusually 
sensitive character, Kokoschka employed the smudging technique found in the 
portraits of women, such as Lotte Franzos and Alma Mahler, that he had 
produced a short time before. 

Kokoschka's paintings of 1912, such as Visitation (fig. no. 29; Wingler 1956, 
No. 60; Winkler/Schulz 77), underwent a process analogous to the stylistic 
developments that took place in his portrait drawings. A comparison of the 
artist's work in these two mediums reveals that Kokoschka's power of expression 
rose to greater heights through drawing. 

1912: Arma Mahler 

Kokoschka first met Alma Mahler (1879-1964) on April 12, 1912, the date he 

30. Portrait of Alma Mahler, 1912. Oil on canvas, 
62 X 56 cm. The National Museum of Modern Arc, 



31. Vincent van Gogh, Pietd (after Delacroix), 1889. 
Oil on canvas, 73 x 60.5 cm. 

32. Double Nude: Lovers. 1913. Oil on canvas, 163 x 
97.5 cm. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 

inscribed on the first portrait he made of her.'''' Portrait of Alma Mahler (cat. 
no. 60), a black-chalk drawing made later that year, is a study for the painting 
Portrait of Alma Mahler (fig. no. 30; Wingler 1956, no. 78; Winkler/Schulz 88), 
which Kokoschka started during a trip the pair took to Miirren, in the Bernese 
Oberland, Switzerland, in August 1912. He completed the painting in Vienna on 
December 6, 1912." The leonine features that appear in the painting are not 
evident in the chalk drawing. 

A letter from Kokoschka to Mahler, dated July 23, 1912 and sent from 
Semmering, intimates that she was pregnant with his child: "Should you have a 
darling child by me, great, good nature is merciful and will extinguish all terrors 
and never tear us apart again, because we rely and rest upon each other. . . . Now 
we will find the sanctity of the family, you will be a mother."'"" Mahler's diary of 
1912— 13 has only recently come to light, and it provides confirmation that she was 
pregnant.'"' It also indicates that she was planning an abortion: 

We had to go to Baden-Baden, where I was to visit my sister in the asylum because it was 
thought that it would have a beneficial influence on her disposition. It was there that I 
noticed that I was expecting. From there to Munich — two days — and then on to Vienna. I 
arrived in Vienna in the evening — went to the apartment — alone with the child — and 
when I was there, I suddenly thought: I'm not Oskar's wife! Gustav's death mask had 
arrived in my absence and had been placed in my living room — the sight of it almost drove 
me mad. That smiling, forgiving, superior face made me feel stupid and made the whole 
situation seem somehow untrue. O.K. came — -found me dissolved in tears and couldn't calm 
me down until he had given me permission to have the child taken away. He alloived it, 
but he hasn't gotten over the blow. 

After September 15, Kokoschka went from Baden-Baden to Frankfurt, where 
he met Franz Marc and his wife. From Frankfurt he traveled on to Cologne to see 
the Sonderbund exhibition (on view from May 25 through September 30, 1912), 
which featured six of his paintings. Van Gogh's Pieta (after Eugene Delacroix) of 
1889 (fig. no. 31), which was also on view, particularly impressed him. Various 
elements of the work by van Gogh, such as the jagged rock formation in the 
upper-right corner, had a decisive influence on Kokoschka's style. The same 
structure can be seen in the painting Portrait of Alma Mahler. As Jaroslaw Leshko 
has noted, the composition of van Gogh's painting also influenced the second of 
seven decorative fans Kokoschka made for Mahler. '"" 

1912-13: Assists Anton Ritter von Kenner at the Kunstgev^erbeschule; 
Nude Studies 

On October 1, 1912, Kokoschka began a two-semester teaching assignment as 
Kenner's assistant at the Vienna Kunstgewerbeschule. The works that were 
created by Kokoschka's students during these two semesters, preserved in the 
school's archives, emulate in style a number of Kokoschka's own nude studies. 
Many of these studies by Kokoschka, executed in black chalk and heightened 
with watercolor, may well have been produced toward the end of the 1912— 13 
winter semester. One group of nudes is known as the Savoyardenknaben {The 
Savoyard Boy), which includes Nude Boy Lying on His Back with Knees Elevated 
(cat. no. 63) and Rear View of a Standing Nude Boy with Right Arm Elevated (cat. 
no. 64). It is in many respects a continuation of the nude studies of pubescent 
girls that Kokoschka created around 1907 as a student at the 
Kunstgewerbeschule. But by the end of 1912, Kokoschka's tendency to uglify his 

33. Double-Portrait ofOskar Ki/koschka anil Alma 
Mahler, 1912/13. Oil on canvas, 100 x 90 cm. 
Museum Folkwang, Essen. 



subjects disappeared. In technique, these drawings utilize outlines to model the 
body to a greater extent than in the earlier works. Kokoschka's years of 
portraiture allowed him to capture very sensitive observations of the Savoyard 
boy's face. The artist was inclined to use nonnaturalistic watercolor accents, 
which serve primarily as expressive rather than modeling devices. Kokoschka 
drew the Savoyard boy at least fifteen times. 

1913: Columbus Bound 

Soon after the publication of The Dreannng Boys, Kokoschka attempted to find a 
publisher for a sequel. For a time, he titled it The White Animal-Slayer, but 
subsequently renamed it Columbus Bound. In a letter dated November 25, 1912, 
Kokoschka offered a book — probably this one — to Gurlitt, which agreed to 
publish it. In the same letter, Kokoschka explained that the book was about 
Mahler."' Scholars are in agreement that the transfer drawings for the book were 
produced in 1913. The month of their completion, however, has been a subject of 
debate stemming from an undated letter in which Kokoschka wrote, "I've now 
got twelve of the drawings finished." Heinz Spielmann dates this letter to around 
April, while Johann Winkler believes it to have been written shortly after 
February 4.'°^ "Winkler supports his theory with evidence that Double-Portrait of 
Oskar Kokoschka and Alma Mahler (fig. no. 33, Wingler 1956, no. 77; 
Winkler/Schulz 89), also mentioned in the undated letter, was painted from 
February to early March 1913 and was probably shown as soon as the April Berlin 
Secession. That "Winkler's dating is correct is corroborated by strong stylistic 
similarities between the first lithograph for Columbus Bound and Double-Portrait of 
Oskar Kokoschka and Alma Mahler. 

At the Crossroads (cat. no. 79), one of two preliminary drawings for the 
eponymous lithograph, illustrates two experiences recounted in Mahler's diary. 
During the couple's trip to Miirren, she wrote, they stood naked on the balcony 
at nighttime and had "incredible mountain visions." She continued: "I was lying 
in bed — near the window — white wisps of fog were wafting past the open 
balcony door, like giant bodies without form. Then Oskar had the absurd idea to 
put a candle out there on a chair, and so like a poor soul it was pulled by the 
fog — he made a nice drawing of this idea, too. How frightened both of us were — 
by a flickering candle!"'"' 

The transfer drawing Encounter (cat. no. 80), also for an eponymous lithograph, 
is a variation on this same subject. The drawing style, perhaps most explicit in 
the rendering of Mahler, is derived from the nude studies produced in the 1912— 13 
winter semester. In Encounter, Kokoschka utilized different expressive techniques 
in drawing the woman and man, clearly differentiating between the radiant and 
fully relaxed Mahler, who approaches the artist as if in a dance, and himself, who 
appears bound by a rigid and dense system of lines. 

"While the text oi Columbus Bound has very little to do with her, the 
illustrations are indisputably an homage to Mahler. The series begins with an 
image of Kokoschka's resurrection because of Mahler; it ends with Mahler 
survivint; him. 

1913: Nude Dravs^ings at the Kunstge>verbeschule 

The Savoyard Boy series was followed by several studies of female nudes, including 
Female Nude Seated on the Ground, Hands Clasped behind Her Head (cat. no. (><)). 
(This drawing has been related to Kokoschka's illustrations for Bach Cantata"^ 
and his studies of the "Wroclaw crematorium.'"') In these nudes, the artist takes 

nonnatural coloration a step further, accentuating specific areas of tiie body. The 
women depicted are greatly generalized, particularly in comparison to the 
Savoyard boy, whose personality emerges quite distinctly in the series of 

1913: Illustrations for Karl Kraus's The Great Wall of China 

We know from a letter Kokoschka wrote to Mahler that by May 17, 1913 he had 
completed all but one in a series of illustrations he was making for Kraus.'°* 
Almost certainly, he was referring to chalk drawings for the book Die Chinesische 
Mauer {The Great Wall ofChitia).™ Stylistically, this series takes after the 
illustrations for Kokoschka's story Col/nnbus Bound, but thematically it is quite 
different. There is little to support the theory, which has been advanced, that the 
series followed Kraus's narrative."" Rather, these drawings represent an impressive 
attempt by Kokoschka to deal with Mahler's abortion of their child. One 
drawing, Der Mord (Murder), depicts a female corpse — with Mahler's features — 
partially covered by a tomb. The man bent over the grave, with whom 
Kokoschka probably identified, is shown as a skeleton from the waist up. His 
lower body, not yet sucked into the realm of the grave, still possesses its full 
physical form. The eerie atmosphere of this nocturnal cemetery scene is 
heightened by the burning torch held aloft by the half-dead man. 

No less macabre is Mother with Child and Death (cat. no. 81). Here, 
Kokoschka's reference to the abortion is most direct. In it, Death touches 
Mahler's head with his fingertips. Mahler shamefully attempts to conceal the 
aborted child from Death. In At the Spinning Wheel (cat. no. 82) the artist 
communicates the unspeakable pain that Mahler inflicted on him by terminating 
her pregnancy. She is depicted spinning into yarn the entrails gushing forth from 
his stomach. 

The distinguishing trait of this series is the cruel, gruesome quality of the 
images. That Kokoschka utilized the works as a means of expressing his feelings 
has been given little consideration by art historians. There are no comparable 
works in the entire German Expressionist movement. Nevertheless, the quest to 
pursue the most extreme solutions is common to all Expressionist trends.'" 

A comparison of the drawings that have been discovered so far with the eight 
lithographs for the book reveals that the artist used tracings in this series as 
well — probably to produce the transfer drawings. If the transfer drawings were 
traced from these sketches, this would mean that Kokoschka incorporated the 
essential elements into the transfers while he changed the backgrounds by adding 
and subtractins; details. 


1913: Trip to the Dolomites 

On August 22, 1913, Kokoschka and Mahler met in the Dolomite monntains at 
the Tre Croci pass, near Cortina d'Ampezzo, to celebrate her birthday. In her 
memoir, she wrote of the trip: 

In Tre Croci. our life revolved around his work. In the morning we would go into the 
dense forest to look J or the darkest, greenest spot. We Jound some young horses playing in 
a clearing. Kokoschka was immediately fascinated. We had his sketch pad and color 
pencils along — he stayed there by himself despite his intense fear of solitude, and the 
drawings he made are exceptionally heautijul. The young horses . . . ate from his 
hands and pockets, and tried to prove iheir love to him by rubbing their lovely heads 
against his shoulders and arms."' 


Kokoschka captured the event in several impressive charcoal drawings, such 
as Two Horses by a Stream near Tre Croci (cat. no. 85). The simplified contours in 
this work in particular recall the style of the nude studies produced toward the 
end of this summer semester. Unlike the nudes, however, in this drawing 
Kokoschka rubbed the charcoal heavily to indicate the effect of color and shadow. 
Utilizing a similar treatment, he created several other landscape drawings during 
the trip. 

1913: Nude Studies 

Alter the trip to the Dolomites, Kokoschka made several nude studies, including 
Seated Seminitde Woman Facing Right, Left Hand Resting on Her Head (cox. no. 67) 
and Standing Girl Facing Left ivith Raised Arms (cat. no. 68). The distinguishing 
characteristic of these works is that the broken lines — which the artist had 
utilized frequently to create contour — begin to close up, and the outlines of the 
figures are drawn extremely fluidly, generally in black chalk. Kokoschka thus 
achieved forms that are significantly rounder and more self-contained than in 
previous works. Unlike the nude studies that Kokoschka produced while he was 
Kenner's assistant, in these works the coloration now follows both the shadows 
and the forms of the body, and the use of watercolor is more pronounced. To some 
extent, these works anticipate the intensity and colorfulness of the watercolors he 
would paint in Dresden. They must also been seen in relation to the Bach Cantata 

1913-14: Bach Cantata 

A series of lithographs entitled Ewigkeit — Dn Donnerwort (Eternity. Thou Fearful 
Word), more commonly known as the Bach Cantata, was first published in 1916 in 
a limited-edition portfolio by Fritz Gurlitt in Berlin."' Kokoschka started the 
transfer drawings for the series during the winter of 1913— 14. We can surmise that 
the three-year delay between when he began the drawings and the publication of 
the portfolio was due to World War I. To a greater degree than in earlier 
illustrations, Kokoschka conformed to a text in making the drawings, in this 
case, Johann Sebastian Bach's Cantata for the Twenty -Fourth Sunday after Trinity 
(1723). However, the drawings also reflect Kokoschka's experiences and feelings 
from the period he spent with Mahler. 

In his autobiography, Kokoschka described the circumstances surrounding the 
creation of these illustrations: 

With fresh eyes she (Mahler) looked at my work and saw expressed a melancholy — in the 
lithographs of the series Columbus Bound and Bach Cantata, for instance — which, 
while giving form to an inner experience, lifts it out of the sphere of a commonplace love 
affair. . . . 1 also painted a double portrait of Ahna Mahler and myself at that tirne. But 
to me, and perhaps to others as well, those lithographs will always retnain — in contrast to 
Art Nouveau, Impressionism and all the contemporary art of the period — a myth, a created 
symbol, heavy with the essence of meeting, begetting and parting. It was not only jealousy 
that made me rage against fate. I had a premonition of impending doom. The shadow of 
melancholy hung over our ecstasies and our love, silencing Apollo 's lyre. "* 

The drawings are indeed marked by melancholy, expressed above all through 
the darkness that dominates them. In their posture and demeanor, the figures 
themselves also give testimony to Kokoschka's despondency, suspended as he was 
between hope and fear — the theme of Bach's cantata — for his future with Mahler. 

Kokoschka supplied a specific interpretation o[ Man Raising His Head from the 
Grave, on which His Wife is Seated (cat. no. 83) in his autobiography: "In the 
penultimate print of the Bach Cantata series I am in the grave, slain by my 
own jealousy, like Hyacinthus by the discus that a treacherous fate turned back 
upon him.""* 

1914: Portraits 

The black-chalk Portrait of Georg Trakl (cat. no. 70), drawn from memory (as 
Kokoschka noted in the lower-left corner), may well have been created as early as 
1914, and probably before the March 17 Portrait of Heinrich Benesch (cat. no. 71). 
Indirectly, we are able to date a related drawing, of Franz Hauer (fig. no. 34), 
because it was almost certainly produced before the portrait painting of Hauer 
(Wingler 1956, no. 92; Winkler/Schulz 98), which was completed in October and 
November 1913. It is possible that Portrait of Georg Iraki was based on a rapid 
sketch Kokoschka made when Trakl visited him in his studio and wrote the poem 
that inspired the title of Kokoschka's painting Tempest."" It is the most incisive of 
the three portraits. Unlike the densely structured faces of Hauer and Benesch, the 
poet's features are described by only a few powerful lines. 

1914: The Wrocla>v Crematorium 

In 1914, Kokoschka was primarily occupied with a competition relating to a 
crematorium for the Wroclaw Grabschen Cemetery."' The crematorium, which 
was never built, was designed by the Wroclaw municipal builder Max Berg 
(1870— 1947)."' In no less than tour sketchbooks, Kokoschka worked on designs 
for a sixteen-meter-high painting on plaster for the project. One of these 
sketchbooks is in a private Swiss collection, and the existence of at least three 
other sketchbooks is suggested by the different bindings shown in Albert 
Quendler's contemporaneous film Oskar Kokoschka — Erinner/mgen {Oskar 
Kokoschka — Memories).'"' In a November 2, 1916 letter to his parents Gustav 
(1840-1923) and Romana Kokoschka (1861-1934), he wrote that he had also 
submitted his own architectural plans. 

It was perhaps Walden who told Kokoschka about the competition to design a 
painting for the crematorium. This conclusion may be drawn from a letter to 
Walden, dated April 28, 1914, in which Kokoschka asked lor help in obtaining a 
commission for painting frescoes in the United States: "I am ripe to do what is 
my proper work and find myself forced to go on daubing little pictures, which do 
not give me any satisfaction," he wrote."" 

From a letter to Mahler, we know that in addition to an "official invitation" to 
Wroclaw, Kokoschka had received from Berg plans tor the crematorium in May 
1914."' A telegram from Mahler indicates that Kokoschka spent some time in 
Wroclaw around May 25 to conduct negotiations concerning the painting he was 
supposed to execute.'" The plans that Kokoschka received in May could have 
been similar to the sketches drawn by Berg in July 1914 (fig. no. 35), preserved to 
this day in the archives of the Wroclaw Buildings Department.'" The essentia! 
characteristics of the design are a relatively high tower with terraced levels and a 
lantern, as well as its strong emphasis on both the vertical and horizontal — a 
hallmark of Berg's buildings. 

Although a letter to the publisher Kurt Wolff (1887-1963), written around Lite 
September, suggests that only a monumental painting for the interior was 
involved,'-' Kokoschka nonetheless produced highly developed sketches showing 
his architectural conception, for example Design for the Crcnuloritini iti \\"roc/au: 

34. Portrait of Franz Hauer, 1914. Chalk on 
paper, 41. 1 x 30.9 cm. Bayerische 
Staatsgemaldesammlungen, Munich. 





1 : !tf 



35. Max Berg, Crojj' Satitm ami Suh View oj the 
Crematorium w Bresiat/, 1914. Bauarchiv, Wroclaw. 

36. Minaret and mosque at Samarra, the former 
Abbasid capital, north ol Baghdad. 

Exterior View of Hall and Chimneys (cat. no. 88) and Cross Section of the Interior of the 
Crematorium in Wroclaw with Design for a Painting on Plaster (cat. no. 89). 
According to Michaelis, the qualification for the design of the crematorium 
project was determined through a competition that specified: "The building 
should be like a temple and should be larger than any existing columbarium.""' 
Kokoschka may have gone beyond the planning of a painting to designing the 
architecture as well because he was interested in having his painting displayed in 
surroundings that were appropriate and acceptable to him. Michaelis also 
reported that Kokoschka asked for the dimensions "proposed for the 
Pantheonesque structure," and worked day and night on "sometimes artistic, 
sometimes technical" designs, made mathematical calculations, and also 
familiarized himself with stone and mortar construction. Letters to Mahler 
document Kokoschka 's fervent desire to win this commission and — through the 
social recognition he anticipated from this type of large-scale project — win her 
over once and for all."'' 

Even though World War I intervened and the project was never realized, 
Kokoschka repeatedly attempted to execute the templelike structure as late as the 
1920s."' One example of his ambitions is found in an April 25, 1918 letter in 
which Kokoschka asked Loos to recommend him to the Jesuit Fathers Kolb and 
Arnauld for potential church and monastery projects. "'* A letter from Kokoschka 
to his mother shows that as late as June 11, 1923 he was still thinking of executing 
a "temple structure" — probably something like the crematorium — in the United 

Kokoschka 's architectural drawings were based essentially on Berg's front 
elevation. His style, however, is a synthesis of ancient Roman and Mesopotamian 
architecture. (Based on individual pages that have been preserved from the lost 
sketchbooks, we know that the artist was also exploring Egyptian and Mexican 
models."") One of Kokoschka 's drawings for the crematorium shows a square 
foundation with a round base area above it and a small superstructure in the 
middle; it is based on Hadrian's tomb in Rome. The overall height and the 
towerlike appearance of the crematorium differentiate Kokoschka's scheme from 
the Roman landmark. This height is achieved in the truncated conical shape of 
the upper four levels, a form that recalls the Tower of Babel"' as well as 
Mesopotamian architecture in general.'" Between 1911 and 1913, excavations had 
taken place of the ninth-century ruins of Samarra (see fig. no. 36), the former 
Abbasid capital and an important Shiite pilgrimage site on the Tigris, north of 
Baghdad, an event covered by the world press.'" A sketch on the back of one of 
Kokoschka's drawings makes this influence seem extremely likely. 

Kokoschka went on to design a windowed tower in which successively 
recessed levels are stacked one on top of another. The windows, vertical oblongs, 
have coffered recesses that provide natural light for the building. The influence of 
the Roman Pantheon on this building has been heretofore overlooked. While the 
height of Kokoschka's building called for oblong openings instead of square ones, 
the design ol the main portal is clearly inspired by the Pantheon. 

Quendler's film shows drawings for the project in at least three sketchbooks, 
providing many important insights into the versatility of Kokoschka's painting 
and architectural designs. Among other things, these sketches confirm the 
influence of the Abbasid mosque and the existence of another design by 
Kokoschka incorporating characteristics ot that building as well as of the Roman 

Like the architectural drawings, designs for the large painting in the 

37- Study for Crematorium Painting, 1914. Pencil on 
sketchbook page, 13.8 x 21.2 cm. Fondacion Oskar 
Kokoschka, Vevey. 





38. Uniforms, 1914 (pen and ink on paper, private 
collection), as it appears in Albert Quendler's film 
Oskar Kokoschka — Erwnernngen {Oskar Kokoichka — 

crematorium reveal wide-ranging influences. Several studies after Giotto's frescoes 
in the Arena Chapel in Padua are in the sketchbook alongside the architectural 
studies. It is very likely that Kokoschka visited the chapel while traveling from 
Venice to Rome in April 1913. By recasting the religious symbolism of Giotto's 
Last Judgment into the realm of the profane — one ot Kokoschka's characteristic 
strategies — the artist would have created a design suitable for a crematorium. 
Instead of Christ in a mandorla, the artist chose Fortuna standing on a globe; in 
several studies, she is central in the primarily horizontal composition. 

A study from the sketchbook (fig. no. 37) shows the most advanced design for 
Kokoschka's painting, with groupings of people as they face death. Manfred 
Scholze has suggested how Kokoschka's plans were influenced by John Amos 
Comenius, who believed that everyone creates their own death: 

Finally. I saw Death walk among their midst with a sharp scythe and a bow and arroiv; 
he warned them in a loud voice not to forget that everyone has to die. . . . And whosoever 
was stricken, be they young or old. rich or poor, learned or unlearned, broke down at 
once. . . . They then took the dead, dragged them out. and threw them over the fence into the 
dark abyss that surrounds the world. '" 

This study incorporates many earlier drawings in the sketchbook. In the lower 
left is a drawing recalling Giotto's Lamentation (but without illustrating the birth 
of a child); next to it is a motif — appearing for the first time — of Death with a 
child. 'We see people building a tower, lovers pursued by two corpses, Fortuna in 
the center, the Mother of Sorrows to the right, animals above, and Death 
attacking a king; an old man follows, carrying Death on his shoulder, and on the 
far right, a coffin is being carried away by four people in the presence of Death. 
What is remarkable about the composition is the way the individual groups are 
isolated, an echo of the earlier island drawings. 

1915: Voluntary Military Service; Combat on the Eastern Front 

At the beginning of 1915, Kokoschka was called to active service after enlisting. 
Through Loos, he was assigned to the 15th Dragoon Regiment, in which 
members of the imperial family and higher nobility served.'" Kokoschka was 
expected to conform to his comrades' social status, and therefore had himself 
outfitted, by Goldman and Salatsch,"''' in a light-blue tunic with white facing, red 
breeches, and a golden helmet."" Kokoschka made a drawing of his uniforms, 
indicating the colors with handwritten notations (fig. no. 38). In the upper part of 
this drawing, we see him in his cavalry uniform, with a red cap and riding pants 
and a red tunic with black Astrachan collar, galloping away on his horse Minden 
L6 (which he had purchased by selling his painting The Tempest to a Hamburg 
pharmacist"'**). In the lower left, he is wearing his combat uniform, with a red cap 
and blue tunic with white collar and cuffs. To the right, he is in his dress 
uniform, wearing his helmet, a brown coat with leather tassels, and black dress 

The artist was wounded in the Russian theater near Vladimir- Wolhynsk on 
August 29, 1915. A letter written by Loos to Walden, dated October 18, 1915, 
provides perhaps the most impressive report ot this event: 

Dear Herr Walden, I received your card of September 2^ yesterday. October 12. After having 
been in action for one month. 0. K. was shot in the temple in an attack near Luck on 
August 2<?. The bullet bored through his ear canal and came out through his neck. His 

horse also fell. He ended up under four dead horses, crawled out, and a Cossack spears his 
lance through his chest. Bandaged by the Russians, captured, and taken away. At one 
station, he bribes his guards with one hundred rubles to carry him off the train. Next he is 
lying in the station, watched by Russian guards. Two days later, the station is attacked by 
the Austrians. Walls fall down, but O.K. is not harmed! The Austrians take the building 
and 0. K. is able to deliver the remaining Russians as "his" prisoners. For three weeks be 
was in Vladimir Volinsky, now he's in Briinn, today he is being transferred to the Palais 
Palffy Hospital. Josefsplatz i, Vienna I. Greetings to your wife. As always, yours. Adolf 
Loos. The most important thing is for him to get healthy soon.'^' 

Kokoschka was awarded the highest silver medal for bravery.'^" After his 
hospitalization in Briinn, he was moved to the Palffy Hospital, where he stayed 
until January 1916.''' 

Kokoschka first developed the ideas for his drama Orpheus und Eurydice while 
suffering from fever and delirium after he was wounded;'^' the play demonstrates 
that he was still deeply attached to Mahler. 

1916: Portraits 

At the beginning of 1916, some of Kokoschka's paintings (but no drawings) were 
shown at the Osterreichische Kunstschau in Berlin; the works had been selected by 
Moll and Moser."'*' Kokoschka was presented as the most talented of the young 
artists exhibited, and his portraits in particular were admired.'"*' At the time, he 
mailed four drawings to Albert Ehrenstein at the editorial department of the 
magazine Zeitecho, but they were not reproduced. 

On March 29, 1916, Kokoschka, who had been promoted to sublieutenant, 
submitted a request to the Ministry of War to be transferred to the Military Press 
Quarters as a war artist, describing himself as "the most well-known 
representative of the Modern movement in Austrian painting."'" By the time the 
request was granted on March 3, 1917 — nearly a year after it was submitted — 
Kokoschka was no longer interested, which he expressed in a letter to his mother 
dated November 26, 1916.'"' 

While he was convalescing, Kokoschka visited the Schwarzwald School, where 
he drew several portraits. Several, including Portrait of a Woman (cat. no. 73), were 
dated Easter 1916 by the artist. All are closely related to a group of ink drawings 
of a woman in a garden (for example, fig. no. 39), which exhibit a graphic style 
that Kokoschka used only for an extremely brief period. The drawings could 
almost be called rococo; other artists were experimenting with a similar style, 
among them Dagobert Peche (1887-1923). 

1916: On the Isonzo Front 

In mid-July, Kokoschka, as a liaison officer, was ordered to the Isonzo front along 
the Italian border. On July 10, he wrote to Ehrenstein about a i^ainting trip that 
was so dangerous he feared it could cost him his life."^ On July i~, he was still in 
Klagenfurt and accompanied a group of journalists, painters, and war illustrators 
to Laibach by train. After completing this assignment, Kokoschka saw an 
opportunity to join a Honved regiment.'''* 

Until recently, it was not known exactly where on the Isonzo front Kokoschka 
had been. However, by comparing a World War I military map to Kokoschka's 
chalk drawings that indicate the names of towns, we were able to establish more 
closely where he was.''" Kokoschka was stationed along an approximately nine- 
kilomcter-lontr front line between Idria, Lom di Tolmino, Selo, Ciginj, 




<^. '^:.'^ ' ^^-^ 



39. Woman Standing in a Garden, 1916. Bistre on 
paper, 21.6 x 17.8 cm. Private collection. 


1. I{ 


40. The Emigrant^ 1916/17. Oil on canvas, 95 x 
146 cm. Bayerische Staatsgemaldesammlungen, 

41. Portrait of Mechttlde Lichnowsky , 1916. Charcoal 
on paper, 47.6 x 33 cm. Private collection. 

Woltschach, and Tolmem in the "Bridgehead" combat sector. 

According to the notations on two drawings, on July 22 and 23, 1916 he was in 
Lorn di Tolmino, a group of farms on a rise west of Idria. A few days later, on 
July 28, he wrote to his parents that his sketchbooks already contained several 
portraits of high-ranking officers.'" On July 29, he made it to Kal, which, at a 
high elevation, offered a good view of the combat sector, and he made a 
colored-chalk drawing on which he noted the names of all of the mountains. By 
August 2, he had already filled two sketchbooks with drawings, and probably felt 
that he had fulfilled his obligations."' 

On July 30, Kokoschka described to Loos a village — undoubtedly Selo — 
"where the trench runs through; it was once so beautiful, but today it is shot full 
of holes.""" He mentioned wanting to draw a church, but he was seen by the 
enemy and "overcome by a cloud of shrapnel" that destroyed the house next to 
him. Thus Kokoschka, unharmed, made it through his second baptism by fire.'" 

View frotn Frontlhie Position of Castle Mountain near Tolmein (cat. no. 91) shows 
the view from the Austrian position on the slopes of Sveta Maria to the castle hill 
of Tolmein; we can make out the Austrian communication trenches along the 
front and the Isonzo river in the background. To Kokoschka, portraying the life 
of the soldiers on the front and in the communication zone was ot equal 
importance to illustrating the landscapes. There are several impressive examples 
of this aspect of his war work, such as Artillery Shooting Par Excellence (cat. no. 90). 

Most ot these drawings are executed in black and colored chalks, some with 
watercolor accents. In terms of technique, these drawings, which were produced 
within a two-month period, exhibit striking stylistic differences. It appears that 
Kokoschka's graphic style underwent a transformation here that affected his 
future paintings as well, including The Emigrant (fig. no. 40; Wingler 1956, no. 
113; Winkler/Schulz 123). Rounded lines become prominent, replacing the square, 
angular, and aggressive qualities of the drawings from the Isonzo front. This 
tendency escalates in the following drawings, in which rounded forms introduce a 
baroque quality without sacrificing expression. 

From a letter dated October 22, 1916'" we know that one week before, on 
October 15, Kokoschka had sent drawings from the combat zone to the director of 
the Military Press Quarters, General von Hoen. Unfortunately, these pictures 
could not be located in the archives of the Military Press Quarters nor in the 
estate of the general. 

1916: Berlin, Dresden 

Kokoschka's health may have improved substantially, at least temporarily, 
during his assignment on the Isonzo front, even though he was reportedly 
"on sick leave" when he returned to Berlin.'" From the first week of September 
through late November, he stayed in Berlin, where he produced a series of 
important portraits. The first documented drawing is of Countess Mechtilde 
Lichnowsky, nee Coimtess von Arco-Zinneberg (fig. no. 41), and is dated "9/16." 
Again, we see evidence of Kokoschka's typical working process: he traced 
a drawing made from life and created a second, or in this instance even a third 
version, in a different medium. And yet, there are distinctions in each version. 
In Portrait of Rudolf Blimner (cat. no. 72), Kokoschka employed modeling 
and interlocking, rounded lines to create a plastic composition. He easily 
progressed from the painterly approach used in the life studies to an explicitly 
graphic solution, which was required in adapting his work for the portfolio 
Menschenkopje {Hiwian Heads), published in December 1916. 

From a letter to his mother dated November 26, we know that Kokoschka did 
not want to return to the war, and instead planned to go to a sanatorium in 
Dresden on December i. He was befriended by doctors there, who could have 
helped him avoid an impending term of active duty.''*^ He had also chosen 
Dresden because he was hoping to obtain a professorship at the Royal Saxon 


1916: Job 

The origins of Kokoschka 's play Hiob {Job) date back to Sphinx and Scarecrow^ 
which was written in i<)Oj.Job was first conceived by Kokoschka in 1913, when 
Franz Marc was able to persuade him, Erich Heckel, Vasily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, 
and Alfred Kubin to produce illustrations for a multivolume, large-format Bible. 
Kokoschka may have agreed to the project between March 18 and May 21, 1913."* 
An undated letter from Kokoschka to Marc from the period includes the 
following: "I'd like to do the Book of Job — please send detailed specifications 
about format, etc. I would suggest that the whole thing should be 
polychrome."'" However, World War I and the death of the project's initiator, 
Marc, at Verdun in 1916 prevented the venture."^" 

Kokoschka did not take up the idea of illustrating JoZ" again until sometime 
between December 1916 and March 1917, when he created a series of sketches for 
the project, which he now envisioned as a play. Paul Cassirer published the text 
and fourteen crayon lithographs in Berlin in 1917."" 

With the illustrations {or Job, Kokoschka became more spontaneous, and even 
freer in line. In The Damsel and the Hotspur (cat. no. 92), for example, the forms of 
both figures and objects become looped, curvilinear strokes. The artist created at 
least four versions of this drawing of two lovers, including the transfer drawing 
for the lithograph (Wingler/Welz 94). 

A study for the final page oi Job entitled Finis: Anima and Job (see cat. no. 93) 
demonstrates that Kokoschka understood very well how to emphasize the various 
spatial zones, above all by varying the density of the crayon. This is most 
immediately apparent in the gradations of gray values in the foreground, 
middleground, and background. In the first spatial zone, where the dramatic 
action takes place, the effect is not only achieved through the expressive use of 
line, but also in the overall animated quality. It seems appropriate to conclude 
that when Kokoschka first started making the sketches iorjob — after the 
premiere performance of the play on July 3, 1916 — he was already planning to 
create a pictorial equivalent to individual stage scenes. This is suggested by both 
the boxy spaces in the drawings and the distinct spatial zones. 

1917: War Drav^ings; Peace among Nations 

On March 31, 1917, Kokosclika asked Leo Kestenberg, who was responsible tor 
graphic editions published by Cassirer's gallery, to obtain some copper plates tor 
him."" The artist was probably considering completing illustrations that he had 
planned for a play by Ferdinand Raimund as well as for a war portfolio. He had 
already prepared some thirty sketches for the portfolio, but was not certain how 
he wanted to execute them. It no other medium was appropriate, he would make 
lithographs. This establishes that a series of special war drawings was produced in 
spring 1917. It is likely that these drawings would have been very similar to the 
illustrations Enslaved by thf Government (cat. no. 94) and Soldiers Fighting Each 
Other with Crt/cifixes (cat. no. 95). These two present a controversial view ot war, 
expressing Kokoschka's personal perspective based on his experiences. At the 

48 \i, Peace among Nations, i^lj. Blue crayon on 

paper, $0.5 x 34.4 cm. Private collection. 

' 'St 



) ^ti 


/''' f,. !'*-'! r" 


I 4 £ iK"'" 


A fr^^^rjc^^^^^' 

U0 SrhlmyA ^^ 

same time, the illustrations mirror the position asserted by the revolutionary 
literary circles in Germany with whom Kokoschka was in close contact."' He 
seems to have been particularly concerned with disseminating these ideas as 
widely as possible. Stylistically, the series is related to the portrait drawings that 
Kokoschka made in late fall 1916 in Berlin. The blue-crayon drawing Soldiers 
Fighting Each Other ivith Crucifixes may be seen as one of the first illustrations for 
the proposed antiwar portfolio. The grotesque quality of this drawing generates 
an apocalyptic mood, further heightened by the presence of pterodactyls flying in 
the distance."'' 

Enslaved by the Government may have been produced in connection with the war 
portfolio. It shows a person being branded by a top-hatted man, who represents 
the government. The branded person thus becomes part of the herd of humans 
crawling away on all fours in the upper right. 

In summer 1917, before a mid-September trip to Stockholm, Kokoschka 
created a series of drawings in red pencil that expose the horrors of war: rape, 
pillage, execution, and many other atrocities. Kokoschka adapted his graphic 
style to correspond to the subjects. This is exemplified by his use of lines drawn 
in a nearly even intensity, a technique that creates an entirely new effect in his 

Concluding a series of war scenes dated summer 1917 by Kokoschka is Peace 
among Nations (fig. no. 42), which was executed in blue crayon. It served as a 
transfer drawing for a lithograph that presumably was not executed until 1918 
(Wingler/Welz loi); only one trial proof of this print is known. Other versions of 
this composition are a drawing in ink over chalk and a preparatory sketch that 
preceded the other two drawings. All three were expanded in a related drawing of 
a cemetery scene. Kokoschka identified these drawings with the inscription 
"Friedensbliitter" (Peace Drawings). The couple in elegant mourning dress in 
the foreground, holding wreaths in their hands, can be understood as 
representatives of the government or of the nations. While the couple has carried 
the war to its grave, only then making peace possible, the other figures in the 
devastated landscape are grieving, thus indicating their personal losses and the 
misery that they have suffered. The war portfolio represents the final 
development in Kokoschka's early works on paper and thus the end of his first 
Expressionist phase. 

Translated, from the German, by Susan Schwarz 


The sources listed below are referred to in abbreviated form in the essay: each abbreviation 
precedes its corresponding entry. 


Briefe I 

Oskar Kokoschka. Briefe I. ipo^-ipip. Ed. Olda Kokoschka and Heinz Spielmann. 

Diisseldorf: Claasen Verlag GmbH, 1984. 

Hevesi 1909 

Ludwig Hevesi. Altkitnst-Neukunst. Wien 1894— ipoS. Vienna: 
Verlagsbuchhandlung Carl Konegan, 1909. 

Kokoschka 1910 

Oskar Kokoschka. "Morder Hoffnung der Frauen." Der Sturm (BerUn and 

Vienna), no. 20 (July 14, 1910), pp. I55ff. 

Kokoschka 1974 

Oskar Kokoschka. My Life. Trans. David Britt. New York: Macmillan, 1974. 

Leshko 1977 

Jaroslaw Leshko. Oskar Kokoschka: Paintings, ipoy—ipi^. Ph.D. diss., Columbia 

University, 1977. 


Oskar Kokoschka. Letters, ipo^—ip/6. Selected by Olda Kokoschka and Alfred 
Marnau; trans. Mary Whittal. Abridged and adapted from Oskar Kokoschka Briefe. 
London: Thames and Hudson, 1992. 

Novotny 1968 

Fritz Novotny. "Oskar Kokoschka als Zeichner. Zur Kokoschka-Ausstellung in 
der Tate-Gallery in London 1962." In LJber das "Elementare" in der Kunstgeschichte 
und andere Aufsdtze. Vienna: Verlag Briider Rosenbaum, 1968, pp. 124—30. (First 
published in Apollo (London) 77, no. 7 [September i^6x], pp. 510—16.) 

Schweiger 1983 

Werner J. Schweiger. Der Junge Kokoschka. Leben und Werk. IP04—IP14. Vienna and 

Munich: Edition Christian Brandstatter, 1983. 

Spielmann 1985 

Heinz Spielmann. Oskar Kokoschka: Die Fdcher jiir Alma Mahler. Dortmund: 

Harenburg Kommunikation, 1985. 

Wingler 1956 

Hans Maria Wingler. Oskar Kokoschka. Das Werk des Malers. Salzburg: Verlag 

Galerie Welz, 1956. 

Wmgler/Welz 1975 

Hans Maria Wingler and Friedrich Welz. Oskar Kokoschka. Das druckgraphische 

Werk. Salzburg: Verlag Galerie Welz, 1975. 


Johann Winkler and Katharina Schulz. Unpublished draft of the catalogue 

raisonne of Oskar Kokoschka's paintings currently in preparation. 


1. Kokoschka attended the k.u.k. Staatsrealschule from 1896 through 1904. Today, 
the school is called the Bundesrealgymnasium. It is at Schopenhauerstrasse 49 in 
Vienna's Eighteenth district. 

2. The sketchbook is from the estate of Kokoschka's cousin Grete Carda, 
nee Ortloff (Graphische Sammlung Albertina, inv. no. 41196). 

3. This previously unknown watercolor was discovered in the same family 

4. Kokoschka, Das schriftliche Werk 2: Erzahliingen. ed. Heinz Spielmann 
(Hamburg: Hans Christians Verlag, 1974), pp. 63-82. 

5. Catalogues 14, 15, 25, and 27 of the Kunstgewerbeschule at the k. k. 
Osterreichisches Museums fur Kunst und Industrie for the 1904-05 school year 
(Archives of the Hochschule fiir angewandte Kunst, Vienna). 

6. Kokoschka used the reverse side of a geometry drawing by his brother 
Bohuslav for this drawing. The female nude is reminiscent of illustrations by 
Johann Friedrich Geist (1868— 1948) — who went by the pseudonym Fidus — 
published in the magazine J//^e«i5^. 

7. In the literature, this drawing has been called either Amazon or Nude Women 
Riding (see Will Grohmann, "Zeichnungen von Klimt, Kokoschka, Schiele. Ein 
Beitrag zur Geschichte der neuen Kunst in Wien," Monatshefte fiir Biichevfreimde 
i/ndGraphiksammler [Leipzig] 12 [1925], p. 518). In a review of the 1945 Kokoschka 
exhibition in Vienna, it was also referred to as Ride of the Valkyrie. 

8. It is possible that this watercolor was created at the same time as his sketches 
of a girl being attacked while bathing, which Kokoschka referred to in a 
December 1905 letter to his teacher Leon Keliner (1859-1928) at the Wiihring 
Staatsrealschule {Letters, p. 15). 

9. Edvard Munch used this spatial technique in his prints as early as 1902, as in 
The Garden (etching and drypoint, 49.6 x 64.4 cm; Scheffler 188, W. 95). 

10. Munch's works may have been influential here as well. 

n. Like Kokoschka, Gustav Klimt had gleaned many an inspiration framjugend 
(Alice Strobl, Gustav Klimt. Die Zeichnungen. iS/S-ipoj [Salzburg: Verlag Galerie 
Welz, 1980}, Catalogue Raisonne no. 367). 

12. Also compare Kokoschka's woman in the distance ot this image to the girl on 
the swan reproduced in Jugend, no. 21 (1897), p. 337. 

13. Catalogues 7, 18, and 23 of the Kunstgewerbeschule at the k. k. Ostcrr. 
Museums fiir Kunst und Industrie for the 1905-06 school year (Archives ot tiie 
Hochschule fiir anuewandte Kunst, Vienna). 


14. The issue o( Kneipzeitung dedicated to Kenner consists of a cover with thirteen 

individual pages and contains prose, poetry, and drawings by twelve students 


from the Department for Teaching Candidates at the Kunstgewerbeschule. 
The individual pages are paper transfers dupHcated from alcohol stencils. The 
illustrators drew directly on the stencils. A copy of this issue olKneipzeitung, from 
the estate of Kenner, is in the Archives ot the Hochschule fiir angewandte Kunst 
(inv. no. 2093/Q/i). 

15. Rupert Feuchtmliller, "OK zeichnete in Lassing," Morgen, no. i (1977), 

pp. 18—28; and Rupert FeuchtmLiller, "Die ersten Malversuche Oskar Kokoschkas. 
Zur Entdeckung der handgemalten Postkarten 1899— 1902," Morgen, no. 22 (1982), 
pp. 73-80. 

16. This is equally evident in another pen-and-ink drawing on a posrcard 
addressed to Loidl. The card, dated September 16, portrays Loidl on a galloping 
horse. It was created shortly before Kokoschka entered Czeschka's painting 
department. While the mfluence of Kenner can still be detected in this drawing, 
it makes definite references to Czeschka's work. 

17. Hevesi 1909, p. 237. 

18. Berta Zuckerkandl, "Von den definitiven Provisorien," Wiener all gemeine 
Zehung, October 20, 1907, pp. 2—3. 

19. Kokoschka did, however, produce a small number of works in woodcut, 
Czeschka's favorite medium. A bookplate executed in woodcut appears to have 
been auctioned at the Vienna Dorotheum auction house, but has not yet been 
relocated. A letter to professor Leon Kellner, dated December 21, 1906, also 
confirms that Kokoschka worked in the medium: "I already have enough 
portraits and woodcuts for an exhibition, but I'd rather wait till I'm more 
mature" (Briefe I. p. 6). 

20. Catalogue 2 of the Kunstgewerbeschule at the k. k. Osterr. Museums fiir 
Kunst und Industrie for the 1906—07 school year (Archives of the Hochschule fiir 
angewandte Kunst, Vienna). 

21. A very similar phenomenon can be found in the landscape paintings of Klimt. 
See Alfred Weidinger, "Gustav Klimt. Landschaften," graduate thesis, Salzburg 
University, 1992. 

22. Catalogue 2 of the Kunstgewerbeschule at the k. k. Osterr. Museums fiir 
Kunst und Industrie for the 1906—07 school year (Archives of the Hochschule fiir 
angewandte Kunst, Vienna). 

23. Kokoschka himself was uncertain whether he made the lithographed 
broadsheet, and it was therefore not given a number in Wingler and Welz's 
catalogue raisonne of his prints. 

24. The inventory number is available from the Wiener Werkstiitte Archives. 

25. One of the most important paintings by Gauguin, The Holy Family, had 
already been exhibited in Vienna, at the Secession in late 1905 (Hevesi 1909, 
P- 342.)- 

26. Kokoschka 1974, pp. 18-19. 

27. The artist may have made a mistake in his autobiography when he stated that 
he already had his own studio at that time or when he was still in Kenner's class. 
He contradicted the statement in a letter to his former teacher Kellner, dated 
December 31, 1906, in which he wrote that he probably would not have his own 
studio until the following semester (Briefe I, p. 6). 

28. Lilith Lang was born on August 22, 1891. She began her studies at the 
Kunstgewerbeschule under professor Wilibald Schulmeister in the General 
Department in 1907, and finished in 1910. In the 1908—09 school year, she 
occasionally attended classes in Berthold Loffler's Painting and Drawing 
Department, where she produced costume designs and other works. 

29. Catalogues 9b and 22 of the Kunstgewerbeschule at the k. k. Osterr. 
Museums fiir Kunst und Industrie for the 1907-08 school year (Archives of the 
Hochschule fiir angewandte Kunst, Vienna). 

30. Catalogue 7 of the Kunstgewerbeschule at the k. k. Osterr. Museums fiir 
Kunst und Industrie for the 1907—08 school year (Archives of the Hochschule fiir 
angewandte Kunst, Vienna). 

31. Schweiger 1983, p. 40. 

32. Hevesi 1909, p. 243. It should be noted, however, that the second playbill 
mentions, under the heading "Notice," that the tiles in the barroom were 
provided by "Wiener Keramik: Prof B. Loffler, M. Powolny." 

33. It should be noted that in 1904 Kokoschka's teacher Anton Ritter von Kenner 
created some figures that are quite similar technically. Kenner's figures are now in 
the Archives of the Hochschule fiir angewandte Kunst, Vienna. 

34. Heinz Spielmann suggests that Kokoschka and the poet met at a 
performance of Mell's pantomime Die Tanzerin und die Marionette {The Dancer 
and the Marionette) at a Kunstgewerbeschule garden party in 1907 {Letters, 

p. 306). 

35. Max Mell, quoted in Schweiger 1983, p. 44. 

36. Schweiger 1983, p. 44. Kokoschka's Wiener Werkstiitte pt)stcard no. 77, 
Girt with Lamb Threatened by Robbers (Wingler/Welz 8), and the earlier, 
unexecuted postcard no. 43 also reflect the plot of the sh.ulow play. 

37. According to Hans Maria Wingler, Philipp Hiiusler (1887-1966) — who 
attended the Vienna Kunstgewerbeschule from 1905 through igu and stLidied 
under Franz Cizck, H. Haerdtle, Franz Metzner, and Josel Holtmann — literally 
rescued the figures from the trash can. 


38. Reproduced in Werner J. Schweiger, Wiener Werkstdtte. Kunst und 
Kunsthandwerk. 190^-19^2 (Vienna: Edition Christian Brandstiitter, 1982), 
p. 167. 

39- One copy of the diary is in a private collection in Berlin. However, only 
the wild boar drawings were bound into this edition (Wingler/Welz i8). 
Several loose drawings, including an illustration of a stag hunt (Wingler/ 
Welz 19), were in part watercolored by the artist and are in private and public 

40. Alice Strobl, "Klimts Fries fiir den Speisesaal des Palais Stoclet in Briissel," 
in Das Palais Stoclet in Briissel von Josef Hoffmann mit dem beriihmten Fries von Gustav 
Klinit (Salzburg: Verlag Galerie Welz, 1991), pp. 65—90, reproduction on p. 73. 

41. Erwin Lang was in Kokoschka's classes with Carl Otto Czeschka (from 1907 to 
1908) and Berthold Loffler (from 1908 to 1909). He married the dancer Grete 
Wiesenthal, whom Kokoschka also greatly admired. 

42. Kokoschka 1974, p. 21 

43. Fritz Warndorfer had a very important collection of Minne's work. Hevesi 
described a visit to Warndorfer's house: "My God, to go through the archives in 
Warndorfer's house! There are strange drawers full of drawings, sketchbooks, 
letters, real confessional treasures. On the subject of sketchbooks — I leafed 
through a few of George Minne's, the old romanticist of emaciation and glorifier 
of the eternally gaunt" (Hevesi 1909, p. 226). 

44. Kokoschka, Die trcinmenden Knaben (The Dreaming Boys; Vienna: Wiener 
Werkstatte, 1908). With eight color lithographs and two vignettes based on ink 

45. Carl Otto Czeschka, letter to Fritz Warndorfer, dated February 4, 1908, 
quoted in Schweiger 1983, p. 60. 

46. Fritz Warndorfer, letter to Carl Otto Czeschka, dated March 4, 1908. 
(Mr. Franz Eder of Verlag Galerie Welz in Salzburg kindly provided us with a 
photocopy of the letter.) 

47. A letter from Kokoschka to Erwin Lang, dated to February-March i9o8[?], in 
which Kokoschka indicated that he wanted to send him his fairy tale, should be 
mentioned in this context: "If I send you my book of dreaming boys, you must be 
frightfully sure to adore it, because I am as sensitive as a hunchback about the 
smallest unkindness, and I would tear you to pieces" {Letters, p. 17). 

48. Letters, p. 18. 

49. These drawings were not considered in relation to Rodin's work until our 
exhibition at the Albertina, after an observation by Albertina Director Konrad 
Oberhuber. We then investigated this question and were able to greatly improve 
the chronology. 

50. Kokoschka 1974, p. 20. 

51. The same compositional scheme can be found in the landscape paintings of 
Klimt (see Weidinger, note 21 above). 

52. Carl Otto Czeschka, letter to Ankwicz von Kleehoven, dated September ii, 
1952 (Wiener Stadtbibliothek, inv. no. I.N. 198.569). 

53. Br/e/^Z, p. 7. 

54. Interview with Kokoschka by Wolfgang G. Fischer, in Arts Council of 
Great Britain, Kokoschka Lithographs, p. 11. Quoted in Leshko 1977, p. 227. 

55. Elisabeth Grossegger, "Der Kaiser-Huldigungs-Festzug," in Philosophisch- 
historische Sitznngsberkhte, vol. 585 (Vienna: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 

56. "Kunstschau 1908," Wiener Abendpost. supplement to Wiener Zeitung, June 9, 

57. "Kunstschau." Deiitsches Volksblatt (Vienna), morning edition, June 2, 1908, 
p. I. 

58. Richard JMuther, "Die Kunstschau," Die Zeit (Vienna), morning edition, 
June 6, 1908, p. I. 

59. Adolf Loos kept this drawing in his living room (Burkhard Rukschcio and 
Roland Schachel, Adolf Loos. Leben und Werk [Salzburg: Residenz Verlag, 1982}, 
p. 82.) 

60. Oscar Bie, quoted in Alice Strobl, Giistav Klimt. Die Zeichnungen. 1^04—1912 
(Salzburg: Verlag Galerie Welz, 1982), p. 13; p. 15, notes 7-8. 

61. Die Zeit (Vienna), July 24, 1908, p. 3. 

62. Max Mell, letter dated October 8, 1908 (Wiener Stadtsbibliothek, 
inv. no. I.N. 198.352). 

63. Kokoschka remarked that he did not add the watercolor to this drawing. This 
seems entirely conceivable in this and several other instances. In his 
autobiography, he wrote the following: "It mattered less to me that she [Alma 
Mahler} also took hundreds of sketches and drawings I had lelt behind, foolishly 
believing that the war would not last long. When she remarried in 1915, she is 
said to have given these away to young painters, by whom they were 
unfortunately ruined in attempts to complete them and render them saleable" 
(Kokoschka 1974, p. 74). 

64. Edith Hoffmann, Kokoschka, Life and Work (London: Faber and Faber, 
[1947]), p. 54. 

65. Ill a letter to Ankwicz von Kleehoven, dated September 11, 1952, Carl Otto 
Czeschka was probably referring to these works: "When I was already in 
Hamburg, he offered me some colored drawings; I was supposed to sell them, or 
possibly find a publisher who would be interested in bringing them out as 
anotlier series of fairy-tale pictures. A picture hook, tlieii!" (Wiener 
Stadtsbibliothek, inv, no. I.N. 158.569). 



66. Aldabert Franz Seligmann, "EI Greco," Ne/ie freie Presse (Vienna), morning 
edition, November 7, 1908, p. 3. 

67. Ivan Fenjo believes tiiis drawing to represent the Temptation of St. Anthony 
(Ivan Fenjo, Oskar Kokoschka. Die fri/'he Graphik. ed. Reinhold Graf Bethusy-Huc 
[Vienna: Euro Art, 1976}, pp. iSff.). 

68. Quoted in Schweiger 1983, p. 28. 

69. The representation of a spht set and the especially rich and decorative 
execution were quite common in stage backdrop designs. (This information was 
kindly provided by Dr. Evanthia Greisenegger at the Austrian Theatermuseum in 

70. We are grateful to Count Johann Zubow of Stuttgart for providing very 
detailed information on Prince Platon Zubov Aleksandrovich (1767— 1822). 

71. Gustav Klimt spoke ot approximately eight to ten fans painted by Kokoschka 
for the Wiener Werkstatte that he was going to take to Erich Lederer for Lederer 
to choose from (Christian M. Nebehay, Giistav Klimt, Egon Schiele mid die Familie 
Lederer [Bern: Verlag Galerie Kornfeld, 1987}, p. 8). This remark would indicate 
that other fans exist, or did exist, in addition to the three from this period 
discovered so tar. 

72. Kokoschka 1974, pp. 29-31. 

73. A similar motif appears in the watercolor Mother and Child in Armchair with 
Compote on Table (cat. no. 46). 

74. A similar reptile also appears on the back of the watercolor and ink drawing 
Running Amok ([1908/09], private collection). 

75. Briefe 1, p. 10. Emma Bacher, nee Paulick, married the gold and silver 
magnate Paul Bacher. After his death, she inherited his Galerie Miethke in 
Vienna's inner city and in 1910 married the artist Richard Teschner (1879-1948), 
who was from Leitmeritz. Several other bookplate designs tor Emma Bacher, 
besides the two discussed here, have been preserved. 

j6. This is the opposite of traditional German iconography. 

77. Paul Frank, "Kokoschka," Wiener allgemeine Zeitung. July 7, 1909, p. 3. 

78. Kokoschka 1974, p. 28. 

79. See the text of Kokoschka's play: "(Man:) Who is suckling me with blood? I 
swallowed your blood, devoured your dripping body. (Woman:) I will not let you 
live, you vampire, you drink my blood, you weaken me, woe to you, I'll kill 

you — you tie me up — I caught you — and you hold me — let go of me, you 
bleeding man, your love is gripping me" (Kokoschka 1910, p. 156). 

80. Letters 

p. 32. 

8i. See, for example, Wiener Fremden-Blatt, July 5, 1909, p. 12; and Neuefrek Presse, 
July 5, 1909. 

82. Kokoschka 1974, p. 28. 

83. No relevant references have yet been found in the files of the k. k. 
Ministeriums fiir Kultus und Unterricht (Royal and Imperial Ministry for 
Culture and Education). However, a handwritten entry in Catalogue 20 ot the 
Kunstgewerbeschule referring to the life-drawing course directed by Kenner and 
Loffler indicates that Kokoschka was "expelled in the second semester" (Archives 
of the Hochschule fiir angewandte Kunst, Vienna). 

84. Loos stated, "When I met Kokoschka, he was painting playing cards and fans, 
his talent misused. That was no different from using a racehorse to plough fields ' 
(quoted in Rukschcio/Schachel [see note 59 above}, p. 142). 

85. Kokoschka 1974, p. 34. 

86. This information is taken from a draft of the catalogue raisonne of 
Kokoschka 's paintings that is currently being prepared by Johann Winkler and 
Katharina Schulz. 

87. Adolf Loos, letter to Herwarth Walden, dated October 4, 1909 (Der St//rm 
Archives, Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin). 

88. Der Sturm (Berlin and Vienna), no. 20 (July 14, 1910), p. 155; no. 21 (July 21, 
1910), p. 163; no. 24 (August II, 1910), p. 189. 

89. Kokoschka 1910, p. 156. 

90. Ibid. 


91. Ibid. 

92. Karin Michaelis, "Der tolle Kokoschka," Das Kiimtblatt 2, no. 12 (1918), 
pp. 361-62. 

93. Osterreichisches Staatsarchiv (Austrian Government Archives), Vienna, 
file no. 6990, entry no. 150-IIIa, from the k. k. Ministeriums fiir Kultus und 
Unterricht (Royal and Imperial Ministry for Culture and Education). 

94. Brkfe I, p. 23. The essayist and lyricist Albert Ehrenstein, who, like 
Kokoschka, came from Vienna, was until his death a close friend ol the artist. 

95. It is possible chat through Walden Kokoschka became familiar with the work 
of the Cubists and Futurists as early as 1910 or 1911 (Volker Pirsisch, Der Sliirm. 
Eine M()ii(iy,rcil)hic [Herzberg: Verlag Traugoct Bautz, 1985], p. 671.) The program of 
the first two exhibitions at Herwarth Walden's Der Sturm gallery gives some idea 
of Walden's relationship with the Futurists and the Cubists. The first exhibition. 
The Bli/e Rickr. rruiiz Flci/im. Oskar Kokoschka. Exfressioiiis/s, was heUl in March 
1912, and included works by Georges Brac]ue, Heinrich Campendonk, Robert 


Delaunay, Andre Derain, Raoul Duty, Vasily Kandinsky, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 
Kokoschka, August Macke, Franz Marc, Max Pechstein, Henri Rousseau, and 
Maurice de Vlaminck, among otliers. The second exhibition, The Fi/tiirists 
(U. Boccioni, C. D. Caira. L. Ri/ssolo. G. Severini), was held in April-May 1912, and 
included works by Braque, Delaunay, Derain, Dufy, Kandinsky, Kokoschka, and 
Vlaminck, among others. 

96. Kokoschka, letter to Emma Bacher, dated April 27, 1909 (Briefe I, p. 10). 

97. Ne/^es Wiener Tagblatt, Jantiary 28, 1912. 

98. Alma Maria Mahler- Werfel married the composer and conductor 
Gustav Mahler in 1902; he died in 1911. In 1915, after a passionate affair 
with Kokoschka, she married the architect Walter Gropius. After divorcing 
Gropius, she married Franz Werfel in 1929; together, they emigrated to the 
United States. 

99. Bvteje /, p. 66. 

100. Letters, p. 32 (dated July 27, 1913 in English edition). 

loi. The diary, from Mahler's estate, is in a private collection and was made 
available to us for research purposes. 

102. Leshko 1977, pp. 2i3ff. 

103. Briefe I, p. 94. 

104. Letters, p. 39; Spielmann 1985, p. 46; the letter is also cited in the catalogue 
raisonne of Kokoschka 's paintings that is currently being prepared by Winkler 
and Schulz. 

105. See note loi above. 

106. Hamburger Kunsthalle, Experi?)ieiit Weltiintergang. Wien mn ipoo (exh. cat.), 
ed. Werner Hofmann (Munich: Prestel, 1981), p. 113. 

107. According to the London art market. 

108. Briefe I, p. 105. 

109. Karl Kraus, D/e Chinesische Mai/er (Leipzig: Kurt Wolff Verlag, 1914), with 
eight crayon lithographs by Kokoschka. 

iio. See Wingler/Welz 1975, pp. 78-81. 

111. Richard Hamann and Jost Hermand, Expressionism!/ s, vol. 5: Deutsche Ktinst und 
Kulture von der Griinderzeit bis zum Expressionismus (Berlin: Akademie- Verlag, 1975). 

112. Alma Mahler- Werfel, Mein Leben {My Life; Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch 
Verlag, 1981; i960), pp. 53-54. 

113. The lithograph series was pubHshed as both a portfoho and a bound edition. 
The first edition of the portfoUo was issued in 1916 (advance edition) and 1917 
(standard edition). The second was pubHshed in 1918, with a block-print 
reproduction of the ink drawing Fortima added to the title page. In the same year, 
Gurlitt also released the bound edition (Wingler/Welz, p. 88). 

114. Kokoschka 1974, p. 78. 


115. Ibid. 

116. Rukschcio/Schachel (see note 59 above), p. 192. 

117. For the exact location of the planned construction, see a report in Schlesische 
Zeitung, June 14, 1913. 

118. Max Berg became famous for the construction of the Wroclaw Century Hall 
(1910— 12), his most important work. In this building, concrete was used over 
wide spans for the first time. The surface of the cupola is three times larger than 
that of St. Peter's in Rome, but overall it weighs only half as much. 

119. The sketchbook from Switzerland was reprinted in its entirety by Heinz 
Spielmann in 1992 (Spielmann, "Kokoschka's Studien fiir das Breslauer 
Krematoriums-Projekt," in Oskar Kokoschka. Lebemsp//ren [exh. cat}, ed. Spielmann 
[Schleswig-Holstein, 1992}, pp. 35-54). See also Briefe I, p. 257. 

120. Letters, p. 51. 

121. Briefe 1, p. 163. 

122. Ibid., p. 350 (note to p. 164). We also learn in Kokoschka's letter to Mahler 
that he planned to go to Wroclaw for an extended period, which he did the 
following summer. 

123. We thank Mr. Jerzy Ilkosz, Director of the Building Archives in Wroclaw, 
for providing this information. 

124. Briefe I, p. 182. 

125. Karin Michaelis (see note 92 above), p. 365. 

126. Briefe I. letter dated Jiiiy 23, 1914, p. 172; and letter dated September 24, 
1914, pp. 177-78. 

127. Berg started working again on his plans for a crematorium in Wroclaw in 
1919 and then in 1923-24. The building was, in fact, constructed in 1926 — one 
year alter Berg's retirement — but it followed a design of Richard Konwiarz. (This 
information was kindly provided by Mr. Jerzy Ilkosz, Director of the Building 
Archives in Wroclaw.) Dr. Albert Quendler told us that Kokoschka was still 
interested in the "templelike structure " in the 1920s. 

128. Letter in the Adolf Loos Archives, Granhische Sammluni; Albertina, Vienna. 


129- Letter in the Kokoschka Archives, Zentralbibliothek, Zurich. 

130. Kokoschka 's interest in Egyptian burial sites is manifest particularly in 
individual drawings from the lost sketchbooks that appear in Albert Quendler's 

131. Heinz Spielmann (see note 119 above), p. 45. 

132. Heinz Ulrich Lehmann, "Zu drei wiedergefundenen Entwiirfen Oskar 
Kokoschkas fiir ein Krematorium in Breslau (Wroclaw) von 1914," Dresdener 
Knnstblcitter 30, no. 4 (1986), pp. 104-10. 

133. The first research on Samarra was conducted by Ernst Herzfeld in 1909. His 
preliminary report on the excavations was published in 1912 by Verlag Dietrich 
Reimer (Ernst Vohsen). 

134. John Amos Comenius, quoted in Manfred Scholze, "Zu einigen 
weltanschaulich-philosophischen Grundlagen im Werk von Oskar Kokoschka" 
(an analysis of the development of Kokoschkas philosophies and their influence 
on his works, presented with several examples), diss., Padagogischen Hochschule 
Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wander, Dresden, 1989, p. 40. 

135. Kokoschka 1974, p. 84. 

136. Ibid., p. 85. 

137. Ibid. 

138. Ibid., and Letters , pp. 59-60. 

139. Der Sturm Archives, Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin. 
Kokoschka delivered two Russian medical officers and the medical team to the 
59th Infantry Regiment alter the Austrians stormed the building. 

140. Recommendation for reward number 337257, dated October 4, 1915 
(War Archives, Osterreichisches Staatsarchiv, Vienna). 

141. Letters, p. 70. 

142. The drawings illustrating the play were not produced until 1917— 18. 

143. Neuefreie Pr«/^, January 9, 1916, p. 18. 

144. Franz Servaes, "Wiener Kunstschau," Vossische Zeitung, evening edition, 
January 10, 1916, p. 2. 

145. War Archives, Osterreichisches Staatsarchiv, Vienna, AOK-KPQu. 34/K2, 
no. 1399. The request was approved on March 3, 1917, and Kokoschka was then 
appointed as a war artist. 

146. Briefe I, p. 259. 

147- Letters, p. 72. 

148. Kokoschka 1974, p. 98. A Honved regiment consisted of Hungarian 

149. The Director Emeritus of the War Archives at the Osterreichisches 
Staatsarchiv, Vienna, Dr. Erich Hillbrand, was extremely helpful in identifying 
the locations. 

150. Letters in the collection of Dr. Olda Kokoschka, Villeneuve. Only one of 
these portrait drawings has been located so far. It shows the artillery lieutenant 
Dr. Anton Csete von Falda. 

151. Briefe /, p. 244. 

152. Ibid. 

153. In March 1917, the church was razed in an attack. 

154. War Archives, Osterreichisches Staatsarchiv, Vienna, AOK-KPQu. 34, 
no. 1399. 

155. War Archives, Osterreichisches Staatsarchiv, Vienna, AOK-KPQu. 34, 
no. 1399. 

156. Briefe I, p. 259. 

157. See, in particular, Briefe I, p. 259. 

158. See two letters from Marc to Kubin, dated March 18 and May 21, 1913 (in 
Andreas Hiineke, ed., Der BL/i/e Reiter Dokiimente einer geistigen Bewegiing, third ed. 
[Leipzig: Reclam-Verlag, 1991; 1989}, pp. 517-18). 

159. Kokoschka, letter to Marc, in Hijneke (see note 158 above), pp. 517-18. 

160. Each artist participating in the project was to contribute one volume. The 
volumes were supposed to be issued by Der Blaue Reiter under Reinhard Piper's 
imprint in quarterly or semiannual intervals. Only Kubin's illustrations for the 
Book of Daniel were published, by Georg Miiller in Munich in 1918. Pen-and-ink 
drawings by Klee tor this project have been preserved, as well as woodcuts by 
Marc for the Book of Genesis and paintings and drawings by Kandinsky for the 
Apocalypse. See Hiineke (note 158 above), pp. 516-26 and p. 591 (note 365). 

161. Briefe /, p. 265. The transfer drawings for the fourteen lithographs ha\e not 
been located. 

162. Ibid., pp. 264ff. 

163. These circles incluck-d, among others, Albert F.hrenstein, W'akcr 
Hasenclever, and Ivar von LLicken. Kokoschka was also trieiuls with .icrors Ernst 
Deutsch and Kiithe Richter. 


i64- Processions featuring crucifixes and red flags were in fact quite common in 
Germany (Hamann/Hermand [see note ill above], p. 40). 

In tlie captions to the following catalogue, dimensions are given in centimeters, 
with height preceding width. Dates in brackets were arrived at through stylistic 
analysis and related research; dates without brackets are firmly documented (note 
that in some cases, these dates may not match those assigned by Kokoschka 

The provenance, exhibition history, and bibliographic references for all of the 
works reproduced will be included in the Albertina's catalogue raisonne of 
Kokoschka's drawings and watercolors, currently in preparation. 

64 I. Oas kletne Mi/tterchen {Little Mother), 1897/98. 

Pencil on sketchbook page, 16.6 x 12 cm. Signed 
lower right: Kokoschka. Private collection, Vienna. 

pages 66—6'/: 

2. Italienisches Bauernmadchen in Landschaft 
{Italian Farm Girl in a Landscape), 1901. 
Watercolor, tempera, and pencil on paper, 29.3 x 
22.5 cm. Signed and dated lower leh: 

Oskar Kokoschka 1901. Private collection. Vienna. 

3. Mi/hie in Berglandschaft {Mill in a Mountain 
Landscape), calendar card for the month of 
March, {1902}. Watercolor on board, 13.8 x 8.8 cm. 
Signed lower left: OKOKOSCHKA. Graphische 

Sammlung Albertina, Vienna 41.107. 


■■l\l- ui'vU^^MxAgAA* 






68 ^., Briistbild eines nacb i/nten blickenden Mddchens 

{Half-Length Portrait of a Girl Looking Down), 
[ca. 1903]. Pencil on paper, 27.4 x 21.9 cm. Signed 
lower right: Kokoschka. Graphische Sammlung 
Albertina, Vienna 41.106. 

pages jO'-yi: 

5. M-ddchenakt auf galoppierendem Schimmel 

in Weiherlandschaft {Female Nude on a Galloping 
Horse in a Landscape with Pond), 1905. Watercolor, 
black chalk, and pencil on paper, 28.3 x 37.7 cm. 
Signed and dated lower left: KOKOSCHKA. 05. 
Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna 23.980. 

6. Mddi'henakt aufHengst in Waldlandschaft 
{Female Nude on a Stallion in a Forest), 1905. Pencil 
on paper, 36.8 x 27.5 cm. Signed and dated lower 
right: Kokoschka 05. Private collection. 




72 y. Vnterhaltung am Gartenzaiin {Convenation at 

the Gardi^n Fence), [1906]. Brush and ink, 
watercolor, opaque white, and pencil on paper, 
22.3 X 19.5 cm. Kunsthalle Bremen, Prints and 
Drawings Collection 1955/402. 


S. Versnchung des Heiligen Antonius {Temptation of 
St. Anthony), 1906. Pen and ink, opaque white, and 
pencil on paper, 24.5 x 19.5 cm. Signed and dated 
lower right: OK. 06. Historisches Museum der 
Sradt Wien 116.329. 


9. Sennenn imd Kiih {Dairymaid and Cou), sketch 
for Wiener Werkstatte postcard no. 80, [1907]. 
Brush and ink, tempera, opaque white, and pencil 
on paper, 15.2 x 10.2 cm. Signed center lower left: 
OK. Private collection. 

10. Mddchen am Fenster {Girl by the Window), 
sketch for Wiener Werkstatte postcard 

no. 152, [1907]. Brush and ink, watercolor, 
tempera, opaque white, and pencil on paper, 
13.8 X 8.1 cm. Signed lower left: OK. 
Galerie Mattin Suppan, Vienna. 

11. Tolpebpiele {Horseplay), sketch for an unrealized 
Wiener Werkstatte postcard, [1907]. Brush and 
ink, tempera, opaque white, and pencil on paper, 
13.4 X 8.5 cm. Signed lower left: OK. Private 

12. Mutter mit drei Kindern {Mother with Three 
Children), sketch for Wiener Werkstatte postcard 
no. 117, {1907]. Brush and ink, watercolor, 
tempera, opaque white, and pencil on paper, 
13.4 X 8.5 cm. Signed center left; OK. Private 




80 13. hiadchenakt in geoffnetem Kafig, ciavor 

Plbtenspieler (Nude Girl in an Open Cage in Front 
of a Flutist), sketch for an unrealized Wiener 
Werkscatte postcard, 1908. Brush and ink, 
tempera, opaque white, and pencil on paper, 
13.4 X 8.4 cm. Signed center lower left: OK. 
Private collection. 

pages 82-8^: 

14. Mutter mit Kind auf Renntier im Flufi {Mother 
with Child on a Reindeer in the River), sketch for an 
unrealized Wiener Werkstiitte postcard, 1908. 
Brush and ink, tempera, opaque white, and pencil 
on paper, 13.4 x 8.4 cm. Signed lower right: OK. 
Private collection. 

15. Genoveva /, sketch for an unrealized Wiener 
Werkstiitte postcard, 1908. Brush and ink, 
tempera, and pencil on paper, 13.4 x 8.5 cm. Signed 
center left: OK. Private collection. 



84 i6. Hirscb, Fuchs. Zai/berer unci Flotenspteler 

(Stag. Fox, Magician, and Flutist), movable figures 
for the slide-and-shadow play Das getupfte Ei 
(The Spotted Egg), Cabaret Fledermaus, Vienna, 
1907. Tempera and gold on paper, mounted on 
copper-sheet cutouts; stag: 12.4 x 9 cm; 
fox: 4 X 14 cm; magician: 7 x 1.9 cm; flutist: 
15 X IZ.9 cm. Private collection, Berlin. 

pages 86—91: 

17. recto Zwei stehende weibUche Akte emander 
zugewandf, Detailstudien {Two Standing Female 
Nudes Facing Each Other: Detail Studies), [1907]. 
Pencil on paper, 47 x 31.5 cm. Signed lower left: 
OK. Collection of Klaus Hegewisch, Hamburg. 

17. verso Sitzender Madchenakt. die rechte Hand 
anfgestiitzt: Detailstudien {Seated Nude Girl. 
Supporting Herself with Her Right Hand: Detail 
Study), [1907]. Pencil on paper, 31.5 x 47 cm. 
Collection of Klaus Hegewisch, Hamburg. 

18. Links mit gekreuzten Beinen stehendes Mddchen, 
rechts Sitzende mit hocbgezogenen Knien {Standing 
Girl with Crossed Legs at Left, Seated Girl with 
Knees Drawn to the Chest at Right), [1907}. 
Watercolor, opaque white, and pencil on paper, 
44.3 X 30.7 cm. Signed lower right: OK. Staatliche 
Museen zu Berlin, Drawings Collection F II 938a 
(cat. no. SdZ i). 

19. Stehender Madchenakt, die linke Hand am Kinn 
{Standing Nude Girl with Hand on Chin), [1907}. 
Watercolor, gouache, and pencil on kraft paper, 
44.9 X 31.5 cm. Signed lower right: OK. 
Stadtmuseum Linz-Nordico, Prints and Drawings 
Collection S II/12. 

20. Sitzender Akt einer alten Frau mit Striimpfen 
{Seated Nude Old Woman with Stockings), [1907]. 
Watercolor, opaque white, and pencil on kraft 
paper, 45.1 x 31.7 cm. Signed lower left: OK. 
Private collection, Vienna. 

21. Stehender Akt eincs alten Mannes nach Imks — 
Der Gaukler {Standing Nude Old Man. Turned to 
Left — The Storyteller), [1907}. Black chalk, 
watercolor, gouache, and pencil on kraft paper, 
44.5 X 30.9 cm. Signed lower right: OK. 
Stadtmuseum Linz-Nordico, Prints and Drawings 
Collection SII/ll. 








'I -A 




92 22. Drei Studien eines hockenden Madchens; 

Detailstudie des Kopfes {Three Studies of a Crouched 
Girl; Detail Study of the Head), [1908]. Pencil on 
paper, 44.8 x 31.6 cm. Graphische Sammlung 
Albertina, Vienna 31.449. 

pages 94-97- 

I'^.Junges Madchen jyiit nacktem Oberkorper nach 
vorne gebeiigt {Young Girl with Bare Upper Torso 
Leaning Forivard), {1908}. Wacercolor, tempera, 
and pencil on paper, 45 x 31.2 cm. Signed lower 
left: OK. Collection of Dr. Rudolf Leopold, 

24. Stehendes junges Madchen mit nacktem 
Oberkorper; Detailstudie {Standing Young Girl with 
Bare Upper Torso; Detail Study), [1908}. Watercoior, 
tempera, and pencil on paper, 44.5 x 31. 1 cm. 
Signed lower left: OK. Galerie Richard Ruberl, 

2$. Junges Madchen mit nacktem Oberkorper, sich die 
Haare aufbindend; Detailstudie {Young Girl with 
Bare Upper Torso Tying Back Her Hair; Detail 
Study), [1908]. Watercoior and pencil on paper, 
43.7 X 30.4 cm. Signed lower right: OK. Staatliche 
Museen zu Berlin, Drawings Collection F II 939 
(cat. no. SdZ 2). 

26. The Lunatic Girl, [1908]. Watercoior, gouache, 
and pencil on paper, 46 x 33 cm. Signed lower 
right: OK. Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien 







98 27. Mutter mit Kind (Mother with Child), [1908]. 

Brush and ink, warercolor, gouache, and pencil 
on paper, 45 x 31.2 cm. Signed lower right; OK. 
Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien I15057. 

28. Zwei junge Mddchen beim Ankleiden (Tiao Young 
Girls Dressing), costume design, [1908]. Brush and 
ink, watercolor, gouache, tempera, and pencil on 
paper, 44 x 30.8 cm. Signed lower left: OK. Private 
collection, Germany. 

29. Junges Mddchen mit aiisholendem rechten Arm 
(Young Girl ivith Extended Right Arm), [1908]. 
Watercolor and pencil on paper, 43.7 x 30.4 cm. 
Signed lower right: OK. Staatliche Museen zu 
Berlin, Drawmgs Collection F 11 940 

(cat. no. SdZ 3). 



102 ^o. In den Hiiften nach links gedrehter. stehender 

weihlicher Ruckenakt {Standing Female N/fde with 
Hips Turned to the Left, Viewed fro fn the Back), 
{1910}. Pen and ink, wacercolor, and pencil on 
paper, 45.1 x 31. i cm. Signed lower center: OK. 
The Museum of Modern Arc, New York, Rose 
Gershwin Fund 549.54. 



31. Weiblicher Akt nit nach vorne geneigtem ^05 

Oberkorper. die Hande aiif dem Boden abgestiitzt 

iJFemale Nude Leaning Forward, Supporting Herself 

with Her Hands on the Ground), [1910]. Wacercolor 

and pencil on kraft paper, 45.1 x 31.2 cm. Signed 

lower center: OK. Private collection. 

pages 106— ly. 

32. Schlafende Frau (Sleeping Woman), from the 
series Die traumenden Knaben (The Dreaming Boys), 
1908. Color lithograph with tempera and gouache 
on paper, 24 x 22 cm. Signed in the stone center 
lower left: OK. Private collection, Zurich. 

33. Das Segelschiff (The Sailboat), from the series 
Die traumenden Knaben (The Dreaming Boys), 1908. 
Color lithograph with tempera and gouache on 
paper, 24 x 22 cm. Signed in the stone lower left: 
OK. Private collection, Zurich. 

34. Die Schiffer riijen (The Sailors Are Calling), from 
the series Die traumenden Knaben (The Dreaming 
Boys), 1908. Color lithograph with tempera and 
gouache on paper, 24 x 22 cm. Signed in the stone 
lower right: OK. Private collection, Zurich. 

35. Die feme Insel (The Distant Island), from the 
series Die traumenden Knaben (The Dreaming Boys), 
190S. Color lithograph with tempera and gouache 
on paper, 24 x 22 cm. Signed in the stone lower 
right: OK. Private collection, Zurich. 

36. Paare im Gesprach (Cot/pies in Conversation), 
from the series Die traumenden Knaben (The 
Dreaming Boys), 1908. Color lithograph with 
tempera and gouache on paper, 24 x 22 cm. Signed 
in the stone center upper right: OK. Private 
collection, Zurich. 

37. Die Schlafenden (The Sleepers), from the series 
Die traumenden Knaben (The Dreaming Boys), igo8. 
Color lithograph with tempera and gouache on 
paper, 24 x 22 cm. Signed in the stone lower 
center: OK. Private collection, Zurich. 

38. Die Eruachenden (The Awakening), from the 
series Die traumenden Knaben (The Dreaming Boys), 
1908. Color lithograph with tempera and gouache 
on paper. 24 x 22 cm. Signed in the stone lo\v'er 
right: OK. Private collection, Zurich. 

39. Das Madchcn Li und ich (The Girt Li and I ), 
from the series Die traumenden Knaben 

(The Dreaming Boys), 1908. Color lithograph with 
tempera and opaque white on paper, 24 x 22 cm. 
Signed in the stone lower right: OK. Private 
collection, Zurich. 






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114 4o. Bntu'urf eines nicht ausgefiihrten Plakates p/r den 

Kaiser-Jubilanm-Hnldigungsfestzug {Sketch for an 
Unrealized Poster for the Anniversary Procession in 
Honor of the Emperor), 1908. Tempera, watercolor, 
and pencil on board, 137 x 88.5 cm. Signed center 
lower left: OK. Historisches Museum der Stadt 
Wien 94210. 

pages n6-ij: 

41. Vier KostiimstJidien filr den Kaiser-Jiibildum~ 
Huldigungsfestziig {Four Costuine Studies for the 
Anniversary Procession in Honor of the Emperor), 
1908. Pen and ink. watercolor, gouache, and pencil 
on paper, 31.8 x 45 cm. Historisches Museum der 
Stadt Wien 115125. 

42. Kostiimentwurf fiir den Kaiser-Jubildum- 
Huldigungsfestzng {Costume Design for the 
Anniversary Procession in Hofior of the Emperor), 
1908. Pen and brush and ink, watercolor, gouache, 
opaque white, gold tempera, and pencil on 
board, 24 x 17.7 cm. Signed lower right: OK. 
Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien I15136. 




118 43- Bartiger Fischer {Bearded Fisherman), [1908/09]. 

Pen and brush and ink, tempera, opaque white, 
and pencil on paper. 20.8 x 16.5 cm. Signed center 
lower right: OK. Museum am Ostwall, Dortmund 

pages 120—21: 

44. Bdrtiger Mann im Segelhoot in tropischer 
Landschaft einen Flufi hinaiifsegelnd {Bearded Man 
Sailing Up a River in a Tropical Landscape)^ 
illustration for Robinson {Robinson Crusoe), 
{1908/09}. Pen and brush and ink, watercolor, 
tempera, opaque white, and pencil on paper, 

20.5 X 16.5 cm. Signed lower right: OK. Graphische 
Sammlung Albertina, Vienna 39.045. 

45. Trdinnender Schiffer {Drea?ning Seaman), 
illustration for Robinson {Robinson Crusoe), 
{1908/09]. Brush and ink, watercolor, tempera, 
opaque white, and pencil on paper, 22.5 x 17.5 cm. 
Signed lower right: OK. Galerie Richard Ruberl, 



122 46. Mutter mit Kind im Faiiteiiil. OIntschale aiif dem 

Tisch {Mother and Child in Armchair with Compote 
on Table), [1908/09]. Pen and brush and ink, 
watercolor, gouache, and pencil on board, 20.8 x 
16.2 cm. Signed lower right: OK. Historisches 
Museum der Stadt Wien 94153. 


124 47- Mutter mit Kind aufHindin reitend {Mother 

with Child Riding a Doe), [1908/09]. Pen and 
brush and ink, and pencil on paper, 24.5 x 21 cm. 
Signed lower right: OK. Graphische Sammlung 
Albertina, Vienna 31.346. 


1 26 48. Facherfiir die Wiener Werkstatte {Fan for 

the Wiener Werkstatte), [1909]. Pen and brush and 
ink, watercolor, tempera, opaque white, silver 
tempera, and pencil on untanned goat leather, 
mounted on board, 21 x 41.5 cm. Signed lower 
right: OK. Galerie Wiirthle, Vienna. 

pages i2S-}i: 

49. Fiirst Platon Alexandrovic Zubov {Count Platon 
Aleksandrovich Ztibov), [1909]. Pen and brush and 
ink, tempera, gouache, and pencil on board, 

18. 2 X 8.9 cm. Signed lower right: OK. Sammlung 
Schomer, Klosterneuburg 1223. 

50. Biihnenvorhangentwiirf mit zwei Szenen einer 
Simultanbiihne {Design for a Stage Curtain with Two 
Scenes from a Split Set), [1909}, Pen and brush and 
ink, watercolor, gouache, and pencil on paper, 
28.5 X 33.5 cm. Signed lower right: OK. Private 

51. Liebespaar in exotischer Landschaft mit Tieren II 
{Lovers in an Exotic Landscape with Animals II), 
design lor a bookplate for Emma Bacher, 1909. 
Pen and brush and ink, and pencil on paper, 12. i x 
10. 1 cm. Private collection, Germany. 

52. Pietd, 1909. Color lithograph on paper, 

122 X 79.5 cm. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, 
Vienna 6337. 




"": ^. 


132 53- Selbstbildnii (Self-Portrait), poster for 

Der Sturm, 1910. Color lithograph on paper, 
67.3 X 44.7 cm. Private collection. 


1 34 54- Biidniszeichnii72g Herwarth Wcilden {Portrait of 

Herwartb WaUen), 1909. Pen and ink and pencil on 
graph paper, 28.8 x 22.5 cm. Signed lower center: 
OK. Harvard University Art Museums, 
Cambridge, Mass. 1949.137. 

pages 136-39: 

55. Bildniszeidmung Karin Michaelis {Portait 

of Karin Michaelis)^ [1911]- Pen and ink and opaque 
white on tracing paper, 36 x 23 cm. Signed lower 
left: OK. Museum Stikung Oskar Reinhart, 
Winterthur 2094. 

56. BiUniszeichnimg Dr. Hermann Schwarzwald 
{Portrait of Dr. Hermann Schwarzwald), 1911. Pencil 
on paper, 19.5 x 15 cm. Signed upper right: 
OKokoschka. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, 
Vienna 37.159. 

57. Bildniszeicbming Prof Levin L/idwig Schikking II 
{Portrait of Professor Levin Ludwtg Schikking U), 
1911. Pen and ink on paper, 24.2 x 15.2 cm. Signed 
lower right: OK. Private collection. 

58. Bildniszeichri//ng Karl Kraus I {Portrait of Karl 
Kraus I), 1909. Pen and brush and ink on paper, 
29.7 X 20.6 cm. Collection of Walter Feilchenfeldt. 




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140 59- Bildniszeichnung Vaclav Nijinskij {Portrait of 

Waslav Nijinsky), [1912]. Charcoal on paper, 36.4 x 
23. 8. Signed lower right: OK. Private collection. 

pages 142-43: 

60. Bildniszeicbnnng Alma Mahler {Portrait 

of Alma Mahler), I1912]. Black chalk on paper, 
33.3 X 33.7 cm. Signed lower left: OK. Kupferstich- 
Kabinett der Scaatlichen Kunstsammlungen 
Dresden C 1927-4. 

61. Sdbstbildnis {Self -Portrait), sketch for a poster 
announcing a lecture, 1912. Pencil on paper, 25 x 
18.7 cm. Signed lower left: OK. Private collection, 





144 (Si. Brustbilc! einer Liehkosung Alma Mahlers und 

Oskar Kokoschkas {Half-Length Portrait of Alma 
Mahler Caressing Oskar Kokoschka), [1912]. Charcoal 
and white chalk on paper, 43.5 x 31 cm. Signed 
and dated lower right: Oskar Kokoschka 1913. 
Collection of Dr. Rudolt Leopold, Vienna. 

pages 146-47: 

63. Aiif dem Riicken liegender Knabenakt mit 
angezogenen Knten; Detailstifdie (Nude Boy Lying oh 
His Back with Knees Elevated: Detail Study), 
{1912/13]. Black chalk and watercolor on paper, 
31.5 X 25.4 cm. Collection of Dr. Rudolf Leopold, 

64. RUckenakt eifies stehenden Knaben mit 
hochgehohenem rechtem Arm; Detailstudie {Rear View 
of a Standing Nude Boy with Right Arm Elevated; 
Detail Study), [1912/13}. Black chalk, watercolor, 
and pencil on paper, 44.5 x 29.5 cm. Private 




148 65. Jii'^gi^ Fran im Lehnstuhl. den Kopf mit dev 

rechten Hcind abgestiitzt {Young Woman in an 
Armchair. Supporting Her Head with Her Right 
Hand), [1912]. Black chalk on paper, 40.2 x z8 cm. 
Signed lower left: OK. Graphische Sammlung 
Albertina, Vienna 23.560. 

pages 150-^1: 

66. Lehnende Fran aufEUenbogen gestiitzt nach links 
{Woman Leaning on Her Left Elbow), [1913]. 
Gouache and crayon on paper, 29.5 x 35.3 cm. 
Signed center lower right: OK. Solomon R. 
Guggenheim Museum, New York 48.1172x161. 

67. Sitzender weibUcher Halbakt nach rechts. die 
linke Hand ail f den Kopf gelegt {Seated Seminude 
Woman Facing Right. Left Hand Resting on Her 
Head), {1913]. Black chalk, watercolor, and gouache 
on paper, 31 x 44.8 cm. Signed and dated lower 
left: OKokoschka 1911. Private collection, 






152 68. Stehendes Madchen mit erhobenen Armen nacb 

links {Standing Girl Pacing Left with Raised Ar?7is), 
transfer drawing for the eponymous lithograph, 
[1913]. Black chalk on paper. 43.5 x 27.7 cm. 
Signed lower right: OK. Graphische Sammlung 
Albertina, Vienna 23.561, 

154 69. Aw Bodeii sitzender weibUcher Akt, die Hdnde 

an den Hhiterkopf gelegt {Female Nude Seated on the 
Ground. Hands Clasped behind Her Head)., [1913}- 
Brush and ink, watercolor, and pencil on kraft 
paper, 45 x 30.8 cm. Signed lower left: OK. 
Deutsche Bank AG. 

pages IS6-S7: 

70. Bildniszeichniing Georg Trakl {Portrait ofGeorg 
Trakl), [1914]. Black chalk on paper, 42 x 28 cm. 
Signed lower right: OK. Private collection. 

71. Bildniszeichnmig Heinrich Benesch {Portrait of 
Heinricb Benesch), 1914. Black chalk on paper, 
48.1 X 32.5 cm. Signed lower right: OK. Private 


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1 58 y2. Bildniszeichniing Rudolf hi iimner {Portrait of 

Riidolj Bliimner), [1916]. Pen and ink on tracing 
paper, 34.8 x 30.4 cm. Signed lower right; OK. 
Private collection, Germany. 

160 73- Frauenbildnis {Portrait of a Woman), 1916. 

Black chalk on paper, 51 x 38.6 cm. Signed lower 
right: OK. Kupferstich-Kabinett der Staatlichen 
Kunstsammlungen Dresden C 1929-17. 

„^^I?,'^ , 

162 74- SMangentanz iSnake Dance), 1910. Pen and ink 

and pencil on tracing paper, 23.2 x 22 cm. Signed 
lower right: OK. Private collection. 

pages 164 — 6'/: 

75. Mbrder Hoffnung der Franen I {Murderer, Hope 
of Women /), {1910]. Pen and brush and ink, and 
pencil on tracing paper, 25.5 x 20 cm. Signed lower 
center: OK. Private collection. 

76. Mbrder Hoffnung der Pranen II {Murderer, Hope 
of Women 11), [1910]. Pen and ink and pencil on 
tracing paper, 27.5 x 27.5 cm. Signed lower center: 
OK. Private collection. 

77. Tubutsch und der Tod {Tubutsch and Death), 1911. 
Pen and ink and pencil on paper, 24.7 x 19.8 cm. 
Signed lower center: OK. Museum Stiftung Oskar 
Reinhart, Winterthur 2098. 

78. Ritterjohann des Todes I {Knight John of 
Death I), 1911. Pen and ink on paper, 26 x 18 cm. 
Signed lower right: OK OK. Museum Stiftung 
Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur 2095. 







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168 yg. Am Scbeidewege (At the Crossroads), study 

for the eponymous lithograph, 1913. Black chalk on 
kraft paper, 42.5 x 29.6 cm. Signed lower right: 
OK. Collection of Dr. RudoU Leopold, Vienna. 


170 8o. Begegnieng {Enco/niter)^ transfer drawing 

for the eponymous lithograph, 1913. Black chalk on 
kratt paper, 32.5 x 30 cm. Signed lower right: OK. 
Collection Schomer, Klosterneuburi^ 1220. 

pages I72-7S- 

81. Praii mit Kind unci Tod (Mother with Child and 
Death), study for the eponymous hthograph, 1913. 
Black chalk on tracing paper, 46.4 x 29.7 cm. 
Signed lower left: OK. Collection Schomer, 
Klosterneuburg 1221. 

82. Am Spinnrad {At the Spinning Wheel), study 

for the eponymous lithograph, 1913. Black chalk on 
tracing paper, 36 x 29.5 cm. Signed lower right: 
OK. Collection Schomer, Klosterneuburg 1222. 

83. Der Mann erhebt seinen Kopf aus dem Grabe, auf 
dem das Weih sitzt {Man Raising His Head from the 
Grave, on Which His Wife Is Seated), transfer 
drawing for the eponymous lithograph, {1913/14]. 
Black chalk on paper, 49.5 x 35.2 cm. Signed lower 
left: OK. Private collection, Germany. 

84. Pieta ("Es ist genug") (Pietd ("Enough is 
Enough"}), transfer drawing for the eponymous 
lithograph, [1913/14]. Black chalk on paper, 

27 X 33.5 cm. Signed lower left: OK. Nell Walden 
Collection, Landskrona Museum, Sweden 
LM 14513. 















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176 85- Zwei Pferde an einem kleinen Pliifi bei Tre Croci 

(Two Horses by a Stream near Tre Croci), 1913. 
Charcoal on tracing paper, 33.1 x 44.9 cm. Signed 
lower right; OK. Graphische Sammlunt; Albertina, 
Vienna 31,008. 

pages 178-79- 

86. Gehdii-de in den Dolomiten bei Tre Croci {Building 
in the Dolomites near Tre Croci), 1913. Charcoal on 
paper, 34.6 x 22.8 cm. Signed lower right: OK. 
Private collection, Germany. 

87. Im Hafel von Neapel (In the Port of Naples), 1913. 
Charcoal on paper, 23.5 x 32.3 cm. Signed lower 
left: OK. Private collection, Brussels. 



1 80 88. Entwurf fiir das Krematorium in Bres/au, 

Aufienansicht der Halle und der Kam'me {Design 
for the Crematorium in Wroclaw. Exterior View of 
Hall and Chimneys)^ I9I4- Brush and ink, black 
chalk, charcoal, and red pencil on tracing paper, 
148.3 X 111.7 cm. Kupferstich-Kabinett 
der Scaatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden 
C 1983-631. 


182 gc). Kramatoriiim in BresLm. Ai/frip des Inneren 

mit dem Entumrf eines Wandbildes {Cross Section of 
the Interior of the Crematorium in Wroclaw with 
Design for a Fainting on Plaster)^ I9I4- Pen and 
brush and ink, wacercolor, charcoal, pastel, and 
pencil on tracing paper, 133 x 102.4 cm. 
Kupferstich-Kabinett der Staatlichen 
Kunstsammlungen Dresden C 1983-632. 

pages 184-89: 

90. Feuernde Artillerie. mit Belob/mg geschossen 
{Artillery Shooting Far Excellence), 1916. Pastel and 
black chalk on paper, 30.3 x 43.4 cm. Signed lower 
right: OK. Private collection, Germany. 

91. Blick auf den Schlofiberg bei Tolmein fiber 
die vordersten Stellnngen {View from Frontline 
Fosition of Castle Mountain near Tolmein), 1916. 
Watcrcolor and tempera on paper, 30.3 x 41.8 cm. 
Signed lower right; OK. Galerie Wurthle, Vienna. 

92. Das Frdulein und der Heifisporn {The Damsel and 
the Hotspur), variant of the eponymous lithograph, 
1916. Black chalk on paper, 33.4 x 24.9 cm. Signed 
lower right: OK. Private collection, Germany. 

93. Finis, variant of the lithograph Finis: Anima 
und Hioh {Finis: Anima and Job), 1916. Black chalk 
on paper, 33.5 x 24.7 cm. Signed center lower right: 
OK. Galerie Richard Ruberl, Vienna. 

94. Staatsfrohn {sic} {Enslaved by the Government), 
[1917]. Blue crayon on paper, 57.4 x 34.3 cm. 
Signed lower right: OK. Private collection, Vienna. 

95. Soldaten einander mit Kruzifixen bekampfend 
{Soldiers Fighting Each Other with Crucifixes), study 
for a lithograph protesting the war, [1917]- Blue 
crayon on paper, 39.2 x 29.9 cm. Signed lower 
right: OK. Private collection, Germany. 



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190 c)6. Fran am Boden sitzend an sine Bank gekhnt 

and Katze {Woman Leaning Against a Bench with 
a Cat), [1917}. Crayon on paper, 37.6 x 52.4 cm. 
Signed lower right: OK. Solomon R. Guggenheim 
Museum, New York 48.1172x520. 






Some Other Guggenheim Museum Books 

Paul Ktee at the Guggenheim Ali/seum 
by Andrew Kagan and Lisa Dennison 
108 pages with 87 full-color reproductions 
and 8 black-and-white illustrations 

Watercolors by Kandinsky at the Guggenheim Museum 

by Susan B. Hirschfeld 

184 pages with 70 full-color reproductions 

and 19 black-and-white illustrations 

Josef Albers: Glass. Color, and Light 
by Fred Licht and Nicholas Fox Weber 
152 pages with 62 full-color reproductions 
and 25 black-and-white illustrations 

Mark Rothko in Neu- York 

by Diane Waldman 

144 pages with 62 hill-color reproductions 

Art of This Century: The Guggenheim Museum 

and Its Collection 

by Thomas Krens and the curators of the 

Guggenheim Museum 

344 pages with 165 full-color reproductions 

and 90 black-and-white illustrations 

Distributed by 

Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 

100 Fifth Avenue 

New York, New York looii